Chapter Ten
Let the Mute Witnesses Speak
Sita Ram Goel

The cradle of Hindu culture1 on the eve of its Islamic invasion included what are at present the Sinkiang province of China, the Transoxiana region of Russia, the Seistan province of Iran and the sovereign states of Afghanistan, Pakistan, India, Nepal and Bangladesh. The Islamic invasion commenced around 650 A.D., when a Muslim army secured a foothold in Seistan, and continued till the end of the eighteenth century, when the last Islamic crusader, Tipu Sultan, was overthrown by the British. Hordes of Arabs, Persians, Turks, and Afghans who had been successively inspired by the Theology of Islam poured in, in wave after wave, carrying fire and sword to every nook and corner of this vast area. In the process, Sinkiang, Transoxiana region, Seistan and Afghanistan became transformed into daru’l-IslÃm where all vestiges of the earlier culture were wiped out.  The same spell has engulfed the areas which were parts of India till 1947 and have since become Pakistan and Bangladesh.

We learn from literary and epigraphic sources, accounts of foreign travellers in medieval times, and modern archaeological explorations that, on the eve of the Islamic invasion, the cradle of Hindu culture was honeycombed with temples and monasteries, in many shapes and sizes.  The same sources inform us that many more temples and monasteries continued to come up in places where the Islamic invasion had yet to reach or from where it was forced to retire for some time by the rallying of Hindu resistance.  Hindus were great temple builders because their pantheon was prolific in Gods and Goddesses and their society rich in schools and sects, each with its own way of worship.  But by the time we come to the end of the invasion, we find that almost all these Hindu places of worship had either disappeared or were left in different stages of ruination.  Most of the sacred sites had come to be occupied by a variety of Muslim monuments-masjids and îdgãhs (mosques), dargãhs and ziãrats (shrines), mazãrs and maqbaras (tombs), madrasas and maktabs (seminaries), takiyãs and qabristãns (graveyards).  Quite a few of the new edifices had been built from the materials of those that had been deliberately demolished in order to satisfy the demands of Islamic Theology.  The same materials had been used frequently in some secular structures as well-walls and gates of forts and cities, river and tank embankments, caravanserais and stepwells, palaces and pavilions.

Some apologists of Islam have tried to lay the blame at the door of the White Huns or Epthalites who had overrun parts of the Hindu cradle in the second half of the fifth century A.D. But they count without the witness of Hiuen Tsang, the famous Chinese pilgrim and Buddhist savant, who travelled all over this area from 630 A.D. to 644. Starting from Karashahr in Northern Sinkiang, he passed through Transoxiana, Northern Afghanistan, North-West Frontier Province, Kashmir, Punjab, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, North-Eastern Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Nepal, Bengal, Assam, Orissa, Mahakosal and Andhra Pradesh till he reached Tamil Nadu. On his return journey he travelled through Karnataka, Maharashtra, Gujarat, Madhya Bharat, Sindh, Southern Afghanistan and Southern Sinkiang. In most of these provinces he found in a flourishing state many Buddhist establishments consisting of vihãras (monasteries), chaityas (temples) and stûpas (topes), besides what he described as heretical (Jain) and deva (Brahmanical) temples.  The wealth of architecture and sculptures he saw everywhere confirms what we learn from Hindu literary sources.  Some of this wealth has been recovered in recent times from under mounds of ruins.

During the course of his pilgrimage, Hiuen Tsang stayed at as many as 95 Buddhist centres among which the more famous ones were at Kuchi, Aqsu, Tirmiz, Uch Turfan, Kashagar and Khotan in Sinkiang; Balkh, Ghazni, Bamiyan, Kapisi, Lamghan, Nagarahar and Bannu in Afghanistan; Pushkalavati, Bolar and Takshasila in the North-West Frontier Province; Srinagar, Rajaori and Punch in Kashmir; Sialkot, Jalandhar and Sirhind in the Punjab; Thanesar, Pehowa and Sugh in Haryana; Bairat and Bhinmal in Rajasthan, Mathura, Mahoba, Ahichchhatra, Sankisa, Kanauj, Ayodhya, Prayag, Kausambi, Sravasti, Kapilvastu, Kusinagar, Varanasi, Sarnath and Ghazipur in Uttar Pradesh; Vaishali, Pataliputra, Rajgir, Nalanda, Bodhgaya, Monghyr and Bhagalpur in Bihar; Pundravardhana, Tamralipti, Jessore and Karnasuvarna in Bengal; Puri and Jajnagar in Orissa; Nagarjunikonda and Amaravati in Andhra Pradesh; Kanchipuram in Tamil Nadu; Badami and Kalyani in Karnataka; Paithan and Devagiri in Maharashtra; Bharuch, Junagarh and Valabhi in Gujarat; Ujjain in Malwa; Mirpur Khas and Multan in Sindh. The number of Buddhist monasteries at the bigger ones of these centres ranged from 50 to 500 and the number of monks in residence from 1,000 to 10,000.  It was only in some parts of Eastern Afghanistan and the North-West Frontier Province that monasteries were in a bad shape, which can perhaps be explained by the invasion of White Huns. But so were they in Kusinagar and Kapilavastu where the White Huns are not known to have reached.  On the other hand, the same invaders had ranged over Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh and most of Uttar Pradesh where Hiuen Tsang found the monasteries in a splendid state.  They had even established their rule over Kashmir where Hiuen Tsang saw 500 monasteries housing 5,000 monks. It is, therefore, difficult to hold them responsible for the disappearance of Buddhist centres in areas where Hiuen Tsang had found them flourishing. An explanation has to be found elsewhere. In any case, the upheaval they caused was over by the middle of the sixth century.  Moreover, the temples and monasteries which Hiuen Tsang saw were only a few out of many. He had not gone into the interior of any province, having confined himself to the more famous Buddhist centres.

What was it that really happened to thousands upon thousands of temples and monasteries? Why did they disappear and/or give place to another type of monuments? How come that their architectural and sculptural fragments got built into the foundations and floors and walls and domes of the edifices which replaced them? These are crucial questions which should have been asked by students of medieval Indian history. But no historian worth his name has raised these questions squarely, not to speak of finding adequate answers to them. No systematic study of the subject has been made so far. All that we have are stray references to the demolition of a few Hindu temples, made by the more daring Hindu historians while discussing the religious policy of this or that sultan. Sir Jadunath Sarkar2 and Professor Sri Ram Sharma3 have given more attention to the Islamic policy of demolishing Hindu temples and pointed an accusing finger at the theological tenets which dictated that policy. But their treatment of the subject is brief and their enumeration of temples destroyed by Aurangzeb and the other Mughal emperors touches only the fringe of a vast holocaust caused by the Theology of Islam, all over the cradle of Hindu culture, and throughout more than thirteen hundred years, taking into account what happened in the native Muslim states carved out after the British take-over and the formation of Pakistan after partition in 1947.

Muslim historians, in India and abroad, have written hundreds of accounts in which the progress of Islamic armies across the cradle of Hindu culture is narrated, stage by stage and period by period. A pronounced feature of these Muslim histories is a description-in smaller or greater detail but always with considerable pride-of how the Hindus were slaughtered en masse or converted by force, how hundreds of thousands of Hindu men and women and children were captured as booty and sold into slavery, how Hindu temples and monasteries were razed to the ground or burnt down, and how images of Hindu Gods and Goddesses were destroyed or desecrated. Commandments of Allah (Quran) and precedents set by the Prophet (Sunnah) are frequently cited by the authors in support of what the swordsmen and demolition squads of Islam did with extraordinary zeal, not only in the midst of war but also, and more thoroughly, after Islamic rule had been firmly established. A reference to the Theology of Islam as perfected by the orthodox Imams, leaves little doubt that the citations are seldom without foundation.

The men and women and children who were killed or captured or converted by force cannot be recalled for standing witnesses to what was done to them by the heroes of Islam. The apologists for Islam-the most dogged among them are some Hindu historians and politicians-have easily got away with the plea that Muslim “court scribes” had succumbed to poetic exaggeration in order to please their pious patrons. Their case is weakened when they cite the same sources in support of their owns speculation or when the question is asked as to why the patrons needed stories of bloodshed and wanton destruction for feeding their piety.  But they have taken in their stride these doubts and questions as well.

There are, however, witnesses who are not beyond recall and who can confirm that the “court scribes” were not at all foisting fables on their readers. These are the hundreds of thousands of sculptural and architectural fragments which stand arrayed in museums and drawing rooms all over the world, or which are waiting to be picked up by public and private collectors, or which stare at us from numerous Muslim monuments. These are the thousands of Hindu temples and monasteries which either stand on the surface in a state of ruination or lie buried under the earth waiting for being brought to light by the archaeologist’s spade. These are the thousands of Muslim edifices, sacred as well as secular, which occupy the sites of Hindu temples and monasteries and/or which have been constructed from materials of those monuments.  All these witnesses carry unimpeachable evidence of the violence that was done to them, deliberately and by human hands.

So far no one has cared to make these witnesses speak and relate the story of how they got ruined, demolished, dislocated, dismembered, defaced, mutilated and burnt.  Recent writers on Hindu architecture and sculpture-their tribe is multiplying fast, mostly for commercial reasons-ignore the ghastly wounds which these witnesses show on the very first sight, and dwell on the beauties of the limbs that have survived or escaped injury.  Many a time they have to resort to their imagination for supplying what should have been there but is missing.  All they seem to care for is building their own reputations as historians of Hindu art. If one draws their attention to the mutilations and disfigurements suffered by the subjects under study, one is met with a stunned silence or denounced downright as a Hindu chauvinist out to raise “demons from the past”4 with the deliberate intention of causing “communal strife.”

We, therefore, propose to present a few of these witnesses in order to show in what shape they are and what they have to say.

Tordi (Rajasthan)

“At Tordi there are two fine and massively built stone baolis or step wells known as the Chaur and Khari Baoris. They appear to be old Hindu structures repaired or rebuilt by Muhammadans, probably in the early or middle part of the 15th century…  In the construction of the (Khari) Baori Hindu images have been built in, noticeable amongst them being an image of Kuber on the right flanking wall of the large flight of steps…”5

Naraina (Rajasthan)

“At Naraina… is an old pillared mosque, nine bays long and four bays deep, constructed out of old Hindu temples and standing on the east of the Gauri Shankar tank… The mosque appears to have been built when Mujahid Khan, son of Shams Khan, took possession of Naraina in 840 A.H. or 1436 A.D… To the immediate north of the mosque is the three-arched gateway called Tripolia which is also constructed with materials from old Hindu temples…”6

Chatsu (Rajasthan)

“At Chatsu there is a Muhammadan tomb erected on the eastern embankment of the Golerava tank. The tomb which is known as Gurg Ali Shah’s chhatri is built out of the spoils of Hindu buildings… On the inside of the twelve-sided frieze of the chhatri is a long Persian inscription in verse, but worn out in several places. The inscription does not mention the name of any important personage known to history and all that can be made out with certainty is that the saint Gurg Ali (wolf of Ali) died a martyr on the first of Ramzan in 979 A.H. corresponding to Thursday, the 17th January, 1572 A.D.”7

SaheTh-MaheTh (Uttar Pradesh)

“The ruined Jain temple situated in the western portion of MaheTh… derives the name ‘Sobhnãth’ from Sambhavanãtha, the third TîrthaMkara, who is believed to have been born at Šrãvastî…8

“Let us now turn our attention to the western-most part of Sobhnãth ruins. It is crowned by a domed edifice, apparently a Muslim tomb of the Pathãn period…9

“These remains are raised on a platform, 30’ square, built mostly of broken bricks including carved ones… This platform, no doubt, represents the plinth of the last Jain temple which was destroyed by the Muhammadan conquerors… It will be seen from the plan that the enclosure of the tomb overlaps this square platform. The tomb proper stands on a mass of debris which is probably the remains of the ruined shrine…10

“3. Sculpture… of buff standstone, partly destroyed, representing a TîrthaMkara seated cross-legged in the attitude of meditation on a throne supported by two lions couchant, placed on both sides of a wheel…

“4. Sculpture… of buff sandstone, partly defaced, representing a TîrthaMkara seated cross-legged (as above)…

“8. Sculpture… of buff sandstone, defaced, representing a TîrthaMkara standing between two miniature figures of which that to his right is seated.

“9. Sculpture… of buff standstone, defaced, representing a TîrthaMkara, standing under a parasol…

“12.  Sculpture… of buff standstone, much defaced, representing a male and a female figure seated side by side under a palm tree.

“13.  Sculpture… of buff standstone, broken in four pieces, and carved with five figurines of TîrthaMkaras… seated cross-legged in the attitude of meditation.  The central figure has a Nãga hood. The sculpture evidently was the top portion of a large image slab.”11

Coming to the ruins of a Buddhist monastery in the same complex, the archaeologist proceeds:

“In the 23rd cell, which I identify with the store-room, I found half-buried in the floor a big earthen jar… This must have been used for storage of corn…

“This cell is connected with a find which is certainly the most notable discovery of the season. I refer to an inscribed copper-plate of Govindachandra of Kanauj… The charter was issued from Vãrãnasî on Monday, the full moon day of ÃshãDha Sam. 1186, which… corresponds to the 23rd of June, 1130. The inscription records the grant of six villages to the ‘Community of Buddhist friars of whom Buddhabhattãraka is the chief and foremost, residing in the great convent of the holy Jetavana,’ and is of a paramount importance, in as much as it conclusively settles the identification of MaheTh with the city of Šrãvastî…”12

He describes as follows some of the sculptures unearthed at SrAvastI:

“S.1. Statuette in grey stone… of Buddha seated cross-legged in the teaching attitude on a conventional lotus.  The head, breast and fore-arms as well as the sides of the sculpture are broken.

“S.2. Lower portion… of a blue schist image of Avalokitešvara in the sportive attitude (lîlãsana) on a lotus seat.

“S. 3. Image… of Avalokitešvara seated in ardhaparyanka attitude on a conventional lotus… The head and left arms of the main figure are missing.”13

Sarnath (Uttar Pradesh)

The report of excavations undertaken in 1904-05 says that “the inscriptions found there extending to the twelfth century A.D. show that the connection of Sarnath with Buddhism was still remembered at that date.” It continues that “the condition of the excavated ruins leaves little doubt that a violent catastrophe accompanied by willful destruction and plunder overtook the place.”14 Read this report with the Muslim account that Muhammad GhurI destroyed a thousand idol-temples when he reached Varanasi after defeating Mahãrãjã Jayachandra of Kanauj in 1193 A.D. The fragments that are listed below speak for themselves. The number given in each case is the one adopted in the report of the excavation.

a 42. Upper part of sculptured slab…

E.8. Architectural fragment, with Buddha (?) seated cross-legged on lotus…

a.22. Defaced standing Buddha, hands missing.

a.17. Buddha head with halo.

a. 8. Head and right arm of image.

E.22. Upper part of image.

E.14. Broken seated figure holding object in left hand.

a.11. Fragment of larger sculpture; bust, part of head, and right overarm of female chauri-bearer.

E.25. Upper part of female figure with big ear-ring.

E.6. Fragment of sculpture, from top of throne (?) on left side.

n.19. Seated figure of Buddha in bhûmisparšamudrã, much defaced.

n.221. Torso, with arms of Buddha in dharmachakramudrã.

n.91. Lower part of Buddha seated cross-legged on throne. Defaced.

n.142. Figure of Avalokitešvara in relief. Legs from knees downwards wanting.

n.1.  Relief partly, defaced and upper part missing. Buddha descending from the TrãyastriMšã Heaven Head and left hand missing.

i.50. Lower half of statue. Buddha in bhûmisparšamudrã seated on lotus.

i.17. Buddha in attitude of meditation on lotus. Head missing.

i.46. Head of Buddha with short curls.

i.44. Head of Avalokitešvara, with Amitãbha Buddha in headdress.

n.10. Fragment of three-headed figure (? Mãrîchî) of green stone.

i.49. Standing figure of attendant from upper right of image. Half of face, feet and left hand missing.

i.1. Torso of male figure, ornamented.

i.4. Female figure, with lavishly ornamented head. The legs from knees, right arm and left forearm are missing. Much defaced.

i.105. Hand holding Lotus.

n.172. Torso of Buddha.

n.18. Head of Buddha, slightly defaced.

n.16. Female figure, feet missing.

n.97. Lower part of female figure. Feet missing.

n.163. Buddha, seated.  Much defaced.

K.4. Fragment of seated Buddha in blue Gayã stone.

K.5. Fragment of large statue, showing small Buddha seated in bhûmisparšamudrã

K.18. Fragment of statue in best Gupta style.

J.S.18. 27 and 28.  Three Buddha heads of Gupta style.

J.S.7. Figure of Kubera in niche, with halo behind head.  Partly defaced.

r.67. Upper part of male figure, lavishly adorned.

r.72.  a and b. Pieces of pedestal with three Buddhas in dhyãnamudrã.

r.28. Part of arm, adorned with armlet and inscription in characters of 10th century, containing Buddhist creed.

B.22. Fragment of Bodhi scene (?); two women standing on conventional rock. Head and right arm of left hand figure broken.

B.33. Defaced sitting Buddha in dhyãnamudrã.

B.75. Lower part of Buddha in bhûmisparšamudrã seated cross-legged on lotus.

B.40. Feet of Buddha sitting cross-legged on lotus on throne.

B.38. Headless defaced Buddha seated cross-legged on lotus in dharmachakramudrã.

Y.24. Headless Buddha stated cross-legged on throne in dharmachakramudrã.

B.52. Bust of Buddha in dharmachakramudrã.  Head missing.

B.16. Standing Buddha in varadamudrã; hands and feet broken.

Y.34. Upper part of Buddha in varadamudrã.

B.24. Bust of standing Buddha in abhayamudrã; left hand and head missing.

B.31. Defaced standing Buddha in abhayamudrã. Head and feet missing.

B.48. Feet of standing Buddha with red paint.

B.15. Lower part of AvalokiteSvara seated on lotus in lîlãsana.

Y.23. Bust of figure seated in lîlãsana with trace of halo.

B.59. Legs of figure sitting cross-legged on lotus.

B.7. Female bust with ornaments and high headdress. Left arm and right forearm missing.15

Vaishali (Bihar)

“In the southern section of the city the fort of Rãjã Bisãl is by far the most important ruin… South-west of it stands an old brick Stûpa, now converted into a Dargãh… The name of the saint who is supposed to have been buried there was given to me as Mîrãn-Jî…”16

Gaur and Pandua (Bengal)

“In order to erect mosques and tombs the Muhammadans pulled down all Hindu temples they could lay their hands upon for the sake of the building materials…

“The oldest and the best known building at Gaur and Pandua is the Ãdîna Masjid at Pandua built by Sikandar Shãh, the son of Ilyãs Shãh. The date of its inscription may be read as either 776 or 770, which corresponds with 1374 or 1369 A.D… The materials employed consisted largely of the spoils of Hindu temples and many of the carvings from the temples have been used as facings of doors, arches and pillars…”17

Devikot (Bengal)

“The ancient city of Kotivarsha, which was the seat of a district (vishaya) under Pundra-vardhana province (bhukti) at the time of the Guptas… is now represented by extensive mounds of Bangarh or Ban Rajar Garh… The older site was in continuous occupation till the invasion of the Muhammadans in the thirteenth century to whom it was known as Devkot or Devikot. It possesses Muhammadan records ranging from the thirteenth to the sixteenth century…18

“The Rajbari mound at the South-east corner is one of the highest mounds at Bangarh and. must contain some important remains.  The Dargah of Sultan Pir is a Muhammadan shrine built on the site of an old Hindu temple of which four granite pillars… are still standing in the centre of the enclosure, the door jambs having been used in the construction of the gateway.

“The Dargah of Shah Ata on the north bank of the Dhal-dighi tank is another building built on the ruins of an older Hindu or Buddhist structure… The female figure on the lintels of the doorway now, fixed in the east wall of the Dargah appears to be Tara, from which it would appear that the temple destroyed was Buddhist…”19

Tribeni (Bengal)

“The principal object of interest at Tribeni is the Dargãh of Zafar Khãn Ghãzî. The chronology of this ruler may be deduced from the two inscriptions of which one has been fitted into the plinth of his tomb, while the other is inside the small mosque to the west of the tomb. Both refer to him and the first tells us that he built the mosque close to the Dargãh, which dates from A.D. 1298; while the second records the erection by him of a Madrasah or college in the time of Shamsuddîn Fîroz Shãh and bears a date corresponding to the 28th April, 1313 A.D. It was he who conquered the Hindu Rãjã of Panduah, and introduced Islam into this part of Lower Bengal… The tomb is built out of the spoils taken from Hindu temples…20

“The eastern portion of the tomb was formerly a maNDapa of an earlier Krishna temple which stood on the same spot and sculptures on the inner walls represent scenes from the RãmãyaNa and the Mahãbhãrata, with descriptive titles inscribed in proto-Bengali characters… The other frieze… shows Vishnu with Lakshmî and Sarasvatî in the centre, with two attendents, and five avatãras of VishNu on both flanks… Further clearance work has been executed during the year 1932-33 and among the sculptures discovered in that year are twelve figures of the Sun God, again in the 12th century style and evidently reused by the masons when the Hindu temple was converted into a Muslim structure…”21

Mandu (Madhya Pradesh)

“MãNDû became the capital of the Muhammadan Sultãns of Mãlvã who set about buildings themselves palaces and mosques, first with material pilfered from Hindu temples (already for the most part desecrated and ruined by the iconoclastic fury of their earlier co-religionists), and afterwards with their own quarried material.  Thus nearly all the traces of the splendid shrines of the ParamAras of MAlvA have disappeared save what we find utilized in the ruined mosques and tombs…22

“The date of the construction of the Hindola Mahall cannot be fixed with exactitude… There can, however, be no doubt that it is one of the earliest of the Muhammadan buildings in MãNDû. From its outward appearance there is no sign of Hindu workmanship but the repairs, that have been going on for the past one year, have brought to light a very large number of stones used in the structure, which appear, to have been taken from some pre-existing Hindu temple. The facing stones, which have been most accurately and smoothly cut on their outer surfaces, bear in very many cases on their inner sides the under faced images of Hindu gods, or patterns of purely Hindu design, while pieces of Hindu carving and broken parts of images are found indiscriminately mixed with the rubble, of which the core of the walls is made.”23

Dhar (Madhya Pradesh)

“…The mosque itself appears from local tradition and from the numerous indications and inscriptions found within it to have been built on the site of, and to a large extent out of materials taken from, a Hindu Temple, known to the inhabitants as Rãjã Bhoja’s school. The inference was derived sometime back from the existence of a Sanskrit alphabet and some Sanskrit grammatical forms inscribed in serpentine diagrams on two of the pillar bases in the large prayer chamber and from certain Sanskrit inscriptions on the black stone slabs imbedded in the floor of the prayer chamber, and on the reverse face of the side walls of the mihrãb.24

“The Lãt Masjid built in A.D. 1405, by Dilãwar Khãn, the founder of the Muhammadan kingdom of Mãlvã… is of considerable interest not only on account of the Iron Lãt which lies outside it… but also because it is a good specimen of the use made by the Muhammadan conquerors of the materials of the Hindu temples which they destroyed…”25

Vijayanagar (Karnataka)

“During the construction of the new road-some mounds which evidently marked the remains of destroyed buildings, were dug into, and in one of them were disclosed the foundations of a rectangular building with elaborately carved base. Among the debris were lumps of charcoal and calcined iron, probably the remains of the materials used by the Muhammadans in the destruction of the building. The stones bear extensive signs of having been exposed to the action of fire. That the chief buildings were destroyed by fire, historical evidence shows, and many buildings, notably the ViThalaswAmin temple, still bear signs, in their cracked and fractured stone work, of the catastrophe which overtook them…26

“The most important temple at Vijayanagar from an architectural point of view, is the ViThalaswãmin temple. It stands in the eastern limits of the ruins, near the bank of the TuNgabhadra river, and shows in its later structures the extreme limit in floral magnificence to which the Dravidian style advanced… This building had evidently attracted the special attention of the Muhammadan invaders in their efforts to destroy the buildings of the city, of which this was no doubt one of the most important, for though many of the other temples show traces of the action of fire, in none of them are the effects so marked as in this.  Its massive construction, however, resisted all the efforts that were made to bring it down and the only visible results of their iconoclastic fury are the cracked beams and pillars, some of the later being so flaked as to make one marvel that they are yet able to bear the immense weight of the stone entablature and roof above…”27

Bijapur (Karnataka)

“No ancient Hindu or Jain buildings have survived at Bijapur and the only evidence of their former existence is supplied by two or three mosques, viz., Mosque No. 294, situated in the compound of the Collector’s bungalow, Krimud-d-din Mosque and a third and smaller mosque on the way to the Mangoli Gate, which are all adaptations or re-erections of materials obtained from temples. These mosques are the earliest Muhammadan structures and one of them, i.e., the one constructed by Karimud-d-din, must according to a Persian and Nagari inscription engraved upon its pillars, have been erected in the year 1402 Saka=A.D. 1324, soon after Malik Kafur’s conquest of the.  Deccan.”28

Badami (Karnataka)

“Three stone lintels bearing bas-reliefs were discovered in, course of the clearance at the second gateway of the Hill Fort to the north of the Bhûtnãth tank at Badami… These originally belonged to a temple which is now in ruins and were re-used at a later period in the construction of the plinth of guardroom on the fort.

“The bas-reliefs represent scenes from the early life of KRISHNA and may be compared with similar ones in the BADAMI CAVES…”29

The Pattern of Destruction

The Theology of Islam divides human history into two periods-the Jãhiliyya or the age of ignorance which preceded Allah’s first revelation to Prophet Muhammad, and the age of enlightenment which succeeded that event. It follows that every human creation which existed in the “age of ignorance” has to be converted to its Islamic version or destroyed. The logic applies to pre-Islamic buildings as much as to pre-Islamic ways of worship, mores and manners, dress and decor, personal and place names. This is too large a subject to be dealt with at present. What concerns us here is the fate of temples and monasteries that existed on the eve of the Islamic invasion and that came up in the course of its advance.

What happened to many “abodes of the infidels” is best described by a historian of Vijayanagar in the wake of Islamic victory in 1565 A.D. at the battle of Talikota. “The third day,” he writes, “saw the beginning of the end. The victorious Mussulmans had halted on the field of battle for rest and refreshment, but now they had reached the capital, and from that time forward for a space of five months Vijayanagar knew no rest. The enemy had come to destroy, and they carried out their object relentlessly. They slaughtered the people without mercy; broke down the temples and palaces, and wreaked such savage vengeance on the abode of the kings, that, with the exception of a few great stone-built temples and walls, nothing now remains but a heap of ruins to mark the spot where once stately buildings stood. They demolished the statues and even succeeded in breaking the limbs of the huge Narsimha monolith. Nothing seemed to escape them. They broke up the pavilions standing on the huge platform from which the kings used to watch festivals, and overthrew all the carved work. They lit huge fires in the magnificently decorated buildings forming the temple of Vitthalswamin near the river, and smashed its exquisite stone sculptures. With fire and sword, with crowbars and axes, they carried on day after day their work of destruction. Never perhaps in the history of the world has such havoc been wrought, and wrought so suddenly, on so splendid a city: teeming with a wealthy and industrious population in the full plenitude of prosperity one day, and on the next seized, pillaged, and reduced to ruins, amid scenes of savage massacre and horrors beggaring description…30

The Muslim victors did not get time to raise their own structures from the ruins of Vijayanagar, partly because the Hindu Raja succeeded in regrouping his forces and re-occupying his capital and partly because they did not have the requisite Muslim population to settle in that large city; another invader, the Portuguese, had taken control of the Arabian Sea and blocked the flow of fresh recruits from Muslim countries in the Middle East. What would have happened otherwise is described by Alexander Cunningham in his report on Mahoba. “As Mahoba was,” he writes, “for some time the headquarters of the early Muhammadan Governors, we could hardly expect to find that any Hindu buildings had escaped their furious bigotry, or their equally destructive cupidity. When the destruction of a Hindu temple furnished the destroyer with the ready means of building a house for himself on earth, as well as in heaven, it is perhaps wonderful that so many temples should still be standing in different parts of the country. It must be admitted, however, that, in none of the cities which the early Muhammadans occupied permanently, have they left a single temple standing, save this solitary temple at Mahoba, which doubtless owed its preservation solely to its secure position amid the deep waters of the Madan-Sagar. In Delhi, and Mathura, in Banaras and Jonpur, in Narwar and Ajmer, every single temple was destroyed by their bigotry, but thanks to their cupidity, most of the beautiful Hindu pillars were preserved, and many of them, perhaps, on their original positions, to form new colonnades for the masjids and tombs of the conquerors.  In Mahoba all the other temples were utterly destroyed and the only Hindu building now standing is part of the palace of Parmal, or Paramarddi Deva, on the hill-fort, which has been converted into a masjid. In 1843, I found an inscription of Paramarddi Deva built upside down in the wall of the fort just outside this masjid. It is dated in S. 1240, or A.D. 1183, only one year before the capture of Mahoba by Prithvi-Raj Chohan of Delhi. In the Dargah of Pir Mubarak Shah, and the adjacent Musalman burial-ground, I counted 310 Hindu pillars of granite. I found a black stone bull lying beside the road, and the argha of a lingam fixed as a water-spout in the terrace of the Dargah. These last must have belonged to a temple of Siva, which was probably built in the reign of Kirtti Varmma, between 1065 and 1085 A.D., as I discovered an inscription of that prince built into the wall of one of the tombs.”31

Many other ancient cities and towns suffered the same tragic transformation. Bukhara, Samarkand, Balkh, Kabul, Ghazni, Srinagar, Peshawar, Lahore, Multan, Patan, Ajmer, Delhi, Agra Dhar, Mandu, Budaun, Kanauj, Biharsharif, Patna, Lakhnauti, Ellichpur, Daulatabad, Gulbarga, Bidar, Bijapur, Golconda-to mention only a few of the more famous Hindu capitals-lost their native character and became nests of a closed creed waging incessant war on a catholic culture. Some of these places lost even their ancient names which had great and glorious associations. It is on record that the Islamic invaders coined and imposed this or that quranic concoction on every place they conquered. Unfortunately for them, most of these impositions failed to stick, going the way they came. But quite a few succeeded and have endured till our own times. Reviving the ancient names wherever they have got eclipsed is one of the debts which Hindu society owes to its illustrious ancestors.

On the other hand, a large number of cities, towns and centres of Hindu civilization disappeared from the scene and their ruins have been identified only in recent times, as in the case of Kãpišî, Lampaka, Nagarahãra, Pushkalãvatî, UdbhãNDapura, Takshšilã, Ãlor, Brãhmanãbãd, Debal, Nandana, Agrohã Virãtanagara, Ahichchhatra, Šrãvastî, Sãrnãth, Vaišãlî, Vikramšîla, Nãlandã, KarNasuvarNa, PuNDravardhana, Somapura, Jãjanagar, DhãnyakaTaka, Vijayapurî, Vijayanagara, Dvãrasamudra. What has been found on top of the ruins in most cases is a mosque or a dargãh or a tomb or some other Muslim monument, testifying to Allah’s triumph over Hindu Gods. Many more mounds are still to be explored and identified. A survey of archaeological sites in the Frontier Circle alone and as far back as 1920, listed 255 dheris32 or mounds which, as preliminary explorations indicated, hid ruins of ancient dwellings and/or places of worship. Some dheris, which had been excavated and were not included in this count, showed every sign of deliberate destruction.  By that time, many more mounds of a similar character had been located in other parts of the cradle of Hindu culture. A very large number has been added to the total count in subsequent years. Whichever of them is excavated tells the same story, most of the time. It is a different matter that since the dawn of independence, Indian archaeologists functioning under the spell or from fear of Secularism, record or report only the ethnographical stratifications and cultural sequences.33

Muslim historians credit all their heroes with many expeditions each of which “laid waste” this or that province or region or city or countryside. The foremost heroes of the imperial line at Delhi and Agra such as Qutbu’d-Dîn Aibak (1192-1210 A.D.), Shamsu’d-Dîn Iltutmish (1210-36 A.D.), Ghiyãsu’d-Dîn Balban (1246-66 A D.), Alãu’d-Dîn Khaljî (1296-1316 A.D.), Muhammad bin Tughlaq (1325-51 A.D.), Fîruz Shãh Tughlaq (135188 A.D.) Sikandar Lodî (1489-1519 A.D.), Bãbar (1519-26 A.D.) and Aurangzeb (1658-1707 A.D.) have been specially hailed for “hunting the peasantry like wild beasts”, or for seeing to it that “no lamp is lighted for hundreds of miles”, or for “destroying the dens of idolatry and God-pluralism” wherever their writ ran. The sultans of the provincial Muslim dynasties-Malwa, Gujarat, Sindh, Deccan, Jaunpur, Bengal-were not far behind, if not ahead, of what the imperial pioneers had done or were doing; quite often their performance put the imperial pioneers to shame. No study has yet been made of how much the human population declined due to repeated genocides committed by the swordsmen of Islam. But the count of cities and towns and villages which simply disappeared during the Muslim rule leaves little doubt that the loss of life suffered by the cradle of Hindu culture was colossal.

Putting together all available evidence-literary and archaeological-from Hindu, Muslim and other sources, and following the trail of Islamic invasion, we get the pattern of how the invaders proceeded vis-a-vis Hindu places of worship after occupying a city or town and its suburbs. It should be kept in mind in this context that Muslim rule never became more than a chain of garrison cities and towns, not even in its heyday from Akbar to Aurangzeb, except in areas where wholesale or substantial conversions had taken place.  Elsewhere the invaders were rarely in full control of the countryside; they had to mount repeated expeditions for destroying places of worship, collecting booty including male and female slaves, and for terrorising the peasantry, through slaughter and rapine, so that the latter may become a submissive source of revenue.  The peasantry took no time to rise in revolt whenever and wherever Muslim power weakened or its terror had to be relaxed for reasons beyond its control.

1. Places taken by assault: If a place was taken by assault-which was mostly the case because it was seldom that the Hindus surrendered-it was thoroughly sacked, its surviving population slaughtered or enslaved and all its buildings pulled down. In the next phase, the conquerors raised their own edifices for which slave labour was employed on a large scale in order to produce quick results. Cows and, many a time, Brahmanas were killed and their blood sprinkled on the sacred sites in order to render them unclean for the Hindus for all time to come. The places of worship which the Muslims built for themselves fell into several categories. The pride of place went to the Jãmi‘ Masjid which was invariably built on the site and with the materials of the most prominent Hindu temple; if the materials of that temple were found insufficient for the purpose, they could be supplemented with materials of other temples which had been demolished simultaneously. Some other mosques were built in a similar manner according to need or the fancy of those who mattered. Temple sites and materials were also used for building the tombs of those eminent Muslims who had fallen in the fight; they were honoured as martyrs and their tombs became mazãrs and rauzas in course of time. As we have already pointed out, Hindus being great temple builders, temple materials could be spared for secular structures also, at least in the bigger settlements. It can thus be inferred that all masjids and mazãrs, particularly the Jãmi‘ Masjids which date from the first Muslim occupation of a place, stand on the site of Hindu temples; the structures we see at present may not carry evidence of temple materials used because of subsequent restorations or attempts to erase the evidence. There are very few Jãmi‘ Masjids in the country which do not stand on temple sites.

2. Places surrendered: Once in a while a place was surrendered by the Hindus in terms of an agreement that they would be treated as zimmis and their lives as well as places of worship spared. In such cases, it took some time to eradicate the “emblems of infidelity.” Theologians of Islam were always in disagreement whether Hindus could pass muster as zimmis; they were not People of the Book. It depended upon prevailing power equations for the final decision to go in their favour or against them. Most of the time, Hindus lost the case in which they were never allowed to have any say. What followed was what had happened in places taken by assault, at least in respect of the Hindu places of worship. The zimmi status accorded to the Hindus seldom went beyond exaction of jizya and imposition of disabilities prescribed by Umar, the second rightly-guided Caliph (634-44 A.D.).

3. Places reoccupied by Hindus: It also happened quite frequently, particularly in the early phase of an Islamic invasion, that Hindus retook a place which had been under Muslim occupation for some time. In that case, they rebuilt their temples on new sites. Muslim historians are on record that Hindus spared the mosques and mazãrs which the invaders had raised in the interregnum. When the Muslims came back, which they did in most cases, they re-enacted the standard scene vis-a-vis Hindu places of worship.

4. Places in the countryside: The invaders started sending out expeditions into the countryside as soon as their stranglehold on major cities and towns in a region had been secured.  Hindu places of worship were always the first targets of these expeditions. It is a different matter that sometimes the local Hindus raised their temples again after an expedition had been forced to retreat. For more expeditions came and in due course Hindu places of worship tended to disappear from the countryside as well. At the same time, masjids and mazãrs sprang up everywhere, on the sites of demolished temples.

5. Missionaries of Islam: Expeditions into the countryside were accompanied or followed by the missionaries of Islam who flaunted pretentious names and functioned in many guises. It is on record that the missionaries took active part in attacking the temples. They loved to live on the sites of demolished temples and often used temple materials for building their own dwellings, which also went under various high-sounding names. There were instances when they got killed in the battle or after they settled down in a place which they had helped in pillaging. In all such cases, they were pronounced shahîds (martyrs) and suitable monuments were raised in their memory as soon as it was possible. Thus a large number of gumbads (domes) and ganjs (plains) commemorating the martyrs arose all over the cradle of Hindu culture and myths about them grew apace. In India, we have a large literature on the subject in which Sayyid Sãlãr Mas‘ûd, who got killed at Bahraich while attacking the local Sun Temple, takes pride of place. His mazAr now stands on the site of the same temple which was demolished in a subsequent invasion. Those Muslim saints who survived and settled down have also left a large number of masjids and dargAhs in the countryside. Almost all of them stand on temple sites.

6. The role of sufis: The saints of Islam who became martyrs or settled down were of several types which can be noted by a survey of their ziãrats and mazãrs that we find in abundance in all lands conquered by the armies of Islam. But in the second half of the twelfth century A.D., we find a new type of Muslim saint appearing on the scene and dominating it in subsequent centuries. That was the sufi joined to a silsila. This is not the place to discuss the character of some outstanding sufis like Mansûr al-Hallãj, Bãyazîd Bistãmî, Rûmî and Attãr. Suffice it to say that some of their ancestral spiritual heritage had survived in their consciousness even though their Islamic environment had tended to poison it a good deal. The common name which is used for these early sufis as well as for the teeming breed belonging to the latter-day silsilas, has caused no end of confusion. So far as India is concerned, it is difficult to find a sufi whose consciousness harboured even a trace of any spirituality. By and large, the sufis that functioned in this country were the most fanatic and fundamentalist activists of Islamic imperialism, the same as the latter-day Christian missionaries in the context of Spanish and Portuguese imperialism.

Small wonder that we find them flocking everywhere ahead or with or in the wake of Islamic armies. Sufis of the Chishtîyya silsila in particular excelled in going ahead of these armies and acting as eyes and ears of the Islamic establishment. The Hindus in places where these sufis settled, particularly in the South, failed to understand the true character of these saints till it was too late. The invasions of South India by the armies of Alãu’d-Dîn Khaljî and Muhammad bin Tughlaq can be placed in their proper perspective only when we survey the sufi network in the South. Many sufis were sent in all directions by Nizãmu’d-Dîn Awliyã, the Chistîyya luminary of Delhi; all of them actively participated in jihãds against the local population.  Nizãmu’d-Dîn’s leading disciple, Nasîru’d-Dîn Chirãg-i-Dihlî, exhorted the sufis to serve the Islamic state.  “The essence of sufism,” he versified, “is not an external garment. Gird up your loins to serve the Sultãn and be a sufi.”34 Nasîru’d-Dîn’s leading disciple, Syed Muhammad Husainî Banda Nawãz Gesûdarãz (1321-1422 A.D.), went to Gulbarga for helping the contemporary Bahmani sultan in consolidating Islamic power in the Deccan. Shykh Nizãmu’d-Dîn Awliyã’s dargãh in Delhi continued to be and remains till today the most important centre of Islamic fundamentalism in India.

An estimate of what the sufis did wherever and whenever they could, can be formed from the account of a pilgrimage which a pious Muslim Nawwãb undertook in 1823 to the holy places of Islam in the Chingleput, South Acort, Thanjavur, Tiruchirapalli and North Arcot districts of Tamil Nadu. This region had experienced renewed Islamic invasion after the breakdown of the Vijayanagar Empire in 1565 A.D. Many sufis had flocked in for destroying Hindu temples and converting the Hindu population, particularly the Qãdirîyyas who had been fanning out all over South India after establishing their stronghold at Bidar in the fifteenth century. They did not achieve any notable success in terms of conversions, but the havoc they wrought with Hindu temples can be inferred from a large number of ruins, loose sculptures scattered all over the area, inscriptions mentioning many temples which cannot be traced, and the proliferation of mosques, dargãhs, mazãrs and maqbaras.

The pilgrim visited many places and could not go to some he wanted to cover. All these places were small except Tiruchirapalli, Arcot and Vellore. His court scribe, who kept an account of the pilgrimage, mentions many masjids and mazãrs visited by his patron. Many masjids and mazãrs could not be visited because they were in deserted places covered by forest. There were several graveyards, housing many tombs; one of them was so big that “thousands, even a hundred thousand” graves could be there. Other notable places were takiyãs of faqirs, sarãis, dargãhs, and several houses of holy relics in one of which “a hair of the Holy Prophet is enshrined.” The account does not mention the Hindu population except as “harsh kafirs and marauders.” But stray references reveal that the Muslim population in all these places was sparse. For instance, Kanchipuram had only 50 Muslim houses but 9 masjids and 1 mazãr.

The court scribe pays fulsome homage to the sufis who “planted firmly the Faith of Islam” in this region. The pride of place goes to Hazrat Natthar WalI who took over by force the main temple at Tiruchirapalli and converted it into his khãnqãh. Referring to the destruction of the Sivalinga in the temple, he observes: “The monster was slain and sent to the house of perdition.  His image namely but-ling worshipped by the unbelievers was cut and the head separated from the body. A portion of the body went into the ground. Over that spot is the tomb of WalI shedding rediance till this day.”35 Another sufi, Qãyim Shãh, who came to the same place at a later stage, “was the cause of the destruction of twelve temples.”36 At Vellore, Hazrat Nûr Muhammad Qãdirî, “the most unique man regarded as the invaluable person of his age,” was the “cause of the ruin of temples” which “he laid waste.” He chose to be buried “in the vicinity of the temple” which he had replaced with his khãnqãh.37

It is, therefore, not an accident that the masjids and khAnqAhs built by or for the sufis who reached a place in the first phase of Islamic invasion occupy the sites of Hindu temples and, quite often, contain temple materials in their structures. Lahore, Multan, Uch, Ajmer, Delhi, Badaun, Kanauj, Kalpi, Biharsharif, Maner, Lakhnauti, Patan, Patna, Burhanpur, Daulatabad, Gulbarga, Bidar, Bijapur, Golconda, Arcot, Vellor and Tiruchirapalli-to count only a few leading sufi center-shave many dargãhs which display evidence of iconoclasm.  Many masjids and dargãhs in interior places testify to the same fact, namely, that the sufis were, above everything else, dedicated soldiers of Allah who tolerates no other deity and no other way of worship except that which he revealed to Prophet Muhammad.

7. Particularly pious sultans: Lastly, we have to examine very closely the monuments built during the reigns of the particularly pious sultans who undertook “to cleanse the land from the vices of infidelity and God-pluralism” that had cropped up earlier, either because Islamic terror had weakened under pressure of circumstances or because the proceeding ruler (s) had “wandered away from the path of rectitude.” Fîruz Shãh Tughlaq, Sikandar Lodî and Aurangzeb of the Delhi-Agra imperial line belonged to this category.  They had several prototypes in the provincial Muslim dynasties at Ahmadabad, Mandu, Jaunpur, Lakhnauti, Gulbarga, Bidar, Ahmadnagar, Bijapur and Golconda. There is little doubt that all masjids and mazãrs erected under the direct or indirect patronage of these sultans, particularly in places where Hindu population predominates, stand on the sites of Hindu temples.

A Preliminary Survey

We give below, state-wise and district-wise, the particulars of Muslim monuments which stand on the sites and/or have been built with the materials of Hindu temples, and which we wish to recall as witnesses to the role of Islam as a religion and the character of Muslim rule in medieval India. The list is the result of a preliminary survey. Many more Muslim monuments await examination. Local traditions which have so far been ignored or neglected, have to be tapped on a large scale.

We have tried our best to be exact in respect of locations, names and dates of the monuments mentioned.  Even so, some mistakes and confusions may have remained. It is not unoften that different sources provide different dates and names for the same monument. Many Muslim saints are known by several names, which creates confusion in identifying their mazãrs or dargãhs. Some districts have been renamed or newly, created and a place which was earlier under one district may have been included in another. We shall be grateful to readers who point out these mistakes so that they can be corrected in our major study. This is only a brief summary.


I. Adilabad District.

Mahur, Masjid in the Fort on the hill. Temple site.

II. Anantpur District.

1. Gooty, Gateway to the Hill Fort. Temple materials used.
2. Kadiri, Jãmi‘ Masjid.  Temple site.
3. Konakondla, Masjid in the bazar. Temple materials used.
4. Penukonda
(i) Fort. Temple materials used.
(ii) Masjid in the Fort. Converted Temple.
(iii) Sher Khãn’s Masjid (1546).38 Converted Temple.
(iv) Dargãh of Babayya. Converted Κvara Temple.
(v) Jãmi‘ Masjid (1664-65). Temple site.
(xi) Dargãh of Shãh Fakbru’d-Dîn (1293-94). Temple site.
5. Tadpatri
(i) Jãmi‘ Masjid (1695-96). Temple site.
(ii) Idgãh completed in 1725-26. Temple site.
6. Thummala, Masjid (1674-75). Temple site.

III. Cuddapah District

1. Cuddapah
(i) Bhãp Sãhib-kî-Masjid (1692). Temple site.
(ii) Idgãh (1717-18). Temple site.
(iii) Bahãdur Khãn-kî-Masjid (1722-23). Temple site.
(iv) Dargãh of Shãh Amînu’d-Dîn Gesû Darãz (1736-37). Temple site.
2. Duvvuru, Masjid. Temple site.
3. Gandikot, Jãmi‘ Masjid (1690-91). Temple site.
4. Gangapuru, Masjid. Temple site.
5. Gundlakunta, Dastgîrî Dargãh. Temple site.
6. Gurrumkonda, Fort and several other Muslim buildings. Temple materials used.
7. Jammalmaduguu, Jãmi‘ Masjid (1794-95). Temple site.
8. Jangalapalle, Dargãh of Dastgîr Swãmî. Converted Jangam temple.
9. Siddhavatam
(i) Qutb Shãhî Masjid (restored in 1808). Temple materials use.
(ii) Jãmi‘ Masjid (1701). Temple materials used.
(iii) Dargãh of Bismillãh Khãn Qãdirî. Temple materials used.
(iv) Fort and Gateways. Temple materials used.
(v) Chowk-kî-Masjid. Temple site.
10. Vutukuru
(i) Masjid at Naligoto. Temple site.
(ii) Masjid at Puttumiyyapeta. Temple site.

IV. East Godavari District.

Bikkavolu, Masjid. Temple materials used.

V. Guntur District.

1. Nizampatnam, Dargãh of Shãh Haidrî (1609). Temple site
2. Vinukonda, Jãmi‘ Masjid (1640-41). Temple site.

VI. Hyderabad District.

1. Chikalgoda, Masjid (1610). Temple site.
2. Dargah, Dargãh of Shãh Walî (1601-02). Temple site.
3. Golconda
(i) Jãmi‘ Masjid on Bãlã Hissãr. Temple site.
(ii) Tãrãmatî Masjid. Temple site.
4. Hyderabad
(i) Dargãh of Shãh Mûsã Qãdirî. Temple site.
(ii) Masjid on the Pirulkonda Hill (1690). Temple site.
(iii) Tolî Masjid (1671). Temple materials used.
(iv) Dargãh of Miãn Mishk (d. 1680). Temple site.
(v) Dargãh of Mu’min Chup in Aliyãbãd (1322-23). Temple site.
(vi) Hãjî Kamãl-kî-Masjid (1657). Temple site.
(vii) Begum Masjid (1593). Temple site.
(viii) Dargãh of Islãm Khãn Naqshbandî. Temple site.
(ix) Dargãh of Shãh Dã‘ûd (1369-70). Temple site.
(x) Jãmi‘ Masjid (1597). Temple site.
4. Maisaram, Masjid built by Aurangzeb from materials of 200 temples demolished after the fall of Golconda.
5. Secunderabad, Qadam RasUl. Temple site.
6. Sheikhpet
(i) Shaikh-kî-Masjid (1633-34). Temple site.
(ii) SarãiwAlî Masjid (1678-79). Temple tite.

VII. Karimnagar District.

1. Dharampuri, Masjid (1693). TrikûTa Temple site.
2. Elangdal
(i) Mansûr Khãn-kî-Masjid (1525). Temple site.
(ii) Alamgîrî Masjid (1696). Temple site.
3. Kalesyaram, Ãlamgîrî Masjid. Temple site.
4. Sonipet, Ãlamgîrî Masjid. Temple site.
5. Vemalvada, Mazãr of a Muslim saint. Temple site.

VIII. Krishna District.

1. Gudimetta, Masjid in the Fort, Temple materials used.
2. Guduru, Jãmi‘ Masjid (1497). Temple materials used.
3. Gundur, Jãmi‘ Masjid. Converted temple.
4. Kondapalli

(i) Masjid built in 1482 on the site of a temple after Muhammad Shãh BahmanI had slaughtered the Brahmin priests on the advice of Mahmûd Gawãn, the great Bahmanî Prime Minister, who exhorted the sultan to become a Ghãzî by means of this pious performance.
(ii) Mazãr of Shãh Abdul Razzãq. Temple site.

5. Kondavidu
(i) Masjid (1337). Temple materials used.
(ii) Dargãh of Barandaula. Temple materials used.
(iii) Qadam Sharîf of Ãdam. Converted temple.
6. Machhlipatnam
(i) Jãmi‘ Masjid. Temple site.
(ii) Idgãh. Temple site.
7. Nandigram, Jãmi‘ Masjid. Temple site.
8. Pedana, Iama‘il-kî-Masjid. Temple site.
9. Rajkonda, Masjid (1484). Temple site.
10. Tengda, Masjid. Temple site.
11. Turkpalem, Dargãh of Ghãlib Shahîd. Temple site.
12. Vadpaili, Masjid near NarsiMhaswãmîn Temple. Temple materials used.
13. Vijaywada, Jãmi‘ Masjid. Temple site.

IX. Kurnool District.

1. Adoni
(i) Jãmi‘ Masjid (1668-69). Materials of several temples used.
(ii) Masjid on the Hill. Temple materials used.
(iii) Fort (1676-77). Temple materials used.
2. Cumbum
(i) Jãmi‘ Masjid (1649). Temple site.
(ii) Gachinãlã Masjid (1729-30). Temple site.
3. Havli, Jãmi‘ Masjid. Temple materials used.
4. Karimuddula, Dargãh. Akkadevi Temple materials used.
5. Kottakot, Jãmi‘ Masjid (1501). Temple site.
6. Kurnool
(i) Pîr Sãhib-kã-Gumbad (1637-38). Temple site.
(ii) Jãmi‘ Masjid (1667). Temple site.
(iii) Lãl Masjid (1738-39). Temple site.
7. Pasupala, Kalãn Masjid. Temple site.
8. Sanjanmala, Masjid. Temple sites.
9. Siddheswaram, Ashurkhãna. Temple materials used.
10. Yadavalli, Mazãr and Masjid. Temple sites.
11. Zuhrapur, Dargãh of Qãdir Shãh Bukhãrî. Temple site.

X. Mahbubnagar District.

1. Alampur, Qalã-kî-Masjid. Temple materials used.
2. Jatprole, Dargãh of Sayyid Shãh Darwish. Temple materials used.
3. Kodangal
(i) Dargãh of Hazrat Nizãmu’d-DIn. Temple site.
(ii) Jãmi‘ Masjid. Temple site.
4. Kundurg, Jãmi‘ Masjid (1470-71). Temple site.
5. Pargi, Jãmi‘ Masjid (1460). Temple site.
6. Somasila, Dargãh of Kamãlu’d-Dîn Baba (1642-43) Temple site.

XI. Medak District.

1. Andol, Old Masjid. Temple site.
2. Komatur, Old Masjid. Temple site.
3. Medak
(i) Masjid near Mubãrak Mahal (1641). VishNu Temple site.
(ii) Fort, Temple materials used.
4. Palat, Masjid. Temple site.
5. Patancheru
(i) Jãmi‘ Masjid. Temple materials used.
(ii) Dargãh of Shykh Ibrãhîm known as Makhdûmji (1583). Temple site.
(iii) Ashrufkhãna. Temple site.
(iv) Fort (1698). Temple materials used.

XII. Nalgonda District.

1. Devarkonda
(i) Qutb Shãhî Masjid. Temple materials used.
(ii) Dargãh of Sharîfu’d-Din (1579). Temple site.
(iii) Dargãh of Qãdir Shãh Walî (1591). Temple site.
2. Ghazinagar, Masjid (1576-77). Temple site.
3. Nalgonda
(i) Garhî Masjid. Temple site.
(ii) Dargãh of Shãh Latîf. Temple site.
(iii) Qutb Shãhî Masjid (Renovated in 1897). Temple site.
4. Pangal, Ãlamgîrî Masjid. Temple site.

XIII. Nellore District.

1. Kandukuru, Four Masjids. Temple sites.
2. Nellore, Dargãh named Dargãmittã. Akkasãlîšvara Temple materials used.
3. Podile, Dargãh. Temple site.
4. Udayagiri
(i) Jãmi‘ Masjid (1642-43). Temple materials used.
(ii) Chhotî Masjid (1650-51). Temple materials used.
(iii) Fort. Temple materials used.

XIV. Nizambad District.

1. Balkonda
(i) Patthar-kî-Masjid. Temple site.
(ii) Idgãh. Temple site.
2. Bodhan
(i) Deval Masjid. Converted Jain temple.
(ii) Patthar-kî-Masjid. Temple site.
(iii) Ãlamgîrî Masjid (1654-55). Temple site.
3. Dudki, Ashrufkhãna. Temple materials used.
4. Fathullapur, Mu’askarî Masjid (1605-06). Temple site.

XV. Osmanabad District.

Ausa, Jãmi‘ Masjid (1680-81). Temple site.

XVI. Rangareddy District.

Maheshwar, Masjid (1687).  Madanna Pandit’s Temple site.

XVII. Srikakulam District

1. Icchapuram, Several Masjids. Temple sites.
2. Kalingapatnam, DargAh of Sayyid Muhammad Madnî Awliyã (1619-20). Temple materials used.
3. Srikakulam
(i) Jãmi‘ Masjid (1641- 42). Temple site.
(ii) Dargãh of Bande Shãh Walî (1641- 42). Temple site.
(iii) Atharwãlî Masjid (1671-72). Temple site.
(iv) Dargãh of Burhãnu’d-Dîn Awliyã. Temple site.

XVIII. Vishakhapatnam District.

1. Jayanagaram, Dargãh. Temple site.
2. Vishakhapatnam, Dargãh of Shãh Madnî. Temple site.

XIX. Warangal District.

Zafargarh, Jãmi‘ Masjid. Temple site.

XX. West Godavari District.

1. Eluru
(i) Fort. Temple materials used.
(ii) Sawãi Masjid. Converted temple.
(iii) Qãzi’s House. Somešvara Temple materials used.
2. Nidavolu, Masjid. Mahãdeva Temple materials used.
3. Rajamundri, Jãmi‘ Masjid (1324). Converted VeNugopãlaswãmin Temple.
District Kamrup
(i) Poã Masjid (1657). Temple site.
(ii) Mazãr of a Muslim saint who styled himself Sultãn Ghiyãsu’d-Dîn Balban. Temple site.

I. Bankura District.

Lokpura, Mazãr of Ghãzî Ismãil. Converted Venugopala temple.

II. Barisal District.

Kasba, Masjid. Temple site.

III. Birbhum District.

1. Moregram, Mazãr of Sayyid Bãbã. Temple materials used.
2. Patharchapuri, Mazã of Dãtã, or Mahbûb Sãhib. Temple site.
3. Rajnagar, Several Old Masjids. Temple sites.
4. Sakulipur, Jãmi‘ Masjid. Temple site.
5. Siyan, Dargãh of Makhdûm Shãh (1221). Materials of many temples used.

IV. Bogra District.

(i) Dargãh and Masjid of Shãh Sultãn Mahîswãr. Stands on the ruins of a temple.
(ii) Majid on Šilãdevî Ghat. Temple materials used.

V. Burdwan District.

1. Inchalabazar, Masjid (1703). Temple site.
2. Kasba, Rãjã, Masjid. Temple materials used.
3. Kalna
(i) Dargãh of Shãh Majlis (1491-93). Temple site.
(ii) ShãhI Masjid (1533). Temple site.
4. Mangalkot, Jãmi‘ Masjid (1523-24). Temple site.
5. Raikha, Talãb-wãlî Masjid. Temple site.
6. Suata
(i) Dargãh of Sayyid Shãh Shahîd Mahmûd Bahmanî. Buddhist Temple materials site.
(ii) Masjid (1502-02). Temple site.

VI. Calcutta District.

Bania Pukur, Masjid built for Alãud-Dîn Alãu’l Haqq (1342). Temple materials used.

VII. Chatgaon District.

Dargãh of Badr Makhdûm. Converted Buddhist Vihãra.

VIII. Dacca District.

1. Dacca
(i) Tomb of Bîbî Parî. Temple materials used.
(ii) Saif Khãn-kî-Masjid. Converted temple.
(iii) Churihattã Masjid. Temple materials used.
2. Narayanganj, Qadam Rasûl Masjid. Temple site.
3. Rampal
(i) Masjid. Converted temple.
(ii) Dargãh of Bãbã. Adam Shahîd (1308). Temple materials used.
4. Sonargaon, Old Masjid. Temple materials used.

IX. Dinajpur District.

1. Basu-Bihar, Two Masjids. On the ruins of a Buddhist Vihãra.
2. Devatala
(i) Dargãh of Shykh Jalãlu’d-Dîn Tabrizi, Suhrawardîyyia sufi credited in Muslim histories with the destruction of many, temples. Temple site.
(ii) Jãmi‘ Masjid (1463). VishNu Temple site.
3. Devikot
(i) Dargãh and Masjid of Pîr Atãu’llah Shãh (1203). Temple materials used.
(ii) Dargãh of Shãh Bukhãrî. Temple materials used.
(iii) Dargãh of Pîr Bahãu’d-Dîn. Temple materials used.
(iv) Dargãh of Shãh Sultãn Pîr. Temple materials used.
4. Mahisantosh, Dargãh and Masjid. On the site of a big VishNu Temple.
5. Nekmard, Mazãr of Nekmard Shãh. Temple site.

X. Faridpur District.

Faridpzir, Mazãr of Farîd Shãh. Temple site.

XI. Hooghly District.

1. Jangipura, Mazãr of Shahîd Ghãzî. Temple materials used.
2. Pandua
(i) Masjid. Temple materials used.
(ii) Mazãr of Shãh Safiu’d-Dîn. Temple site.
(iii) Fath Minãr. Temple materials used.
3. Santoshpur, Masjid near Molla Pukur (153-310). Temple site.
4. Satgaon, Jãmi‘ Masjid. Temple materials used.
5. Tribeni
(i) Zafar Khãn-kî-Masjid (1298). Temple materials used.
(ii) Dargãh of Zafar Khãn. Temple materials used.
(iii) Masjid (1459). Temple site.

XII. Howrah District.

Jangalvilas, Pîr Sãhib-kî-Masjid. Converted temple.

XIII. Khulna District.

1. Masjidkur
(i) Shãt Gumbaz. Temple materials used.
(ii) Mazãr of Khanjã Ali or Khãn Jahãn. Temple site.
2. Salkhira, Dargãh of Maî Chãmpã. Temple materials used.

XIV. Malda District.

1. Gangarampur
(i) Dargãh of Shãh Atã. Šiva Temple site.
(ii) Masjid on the river bank (1249). Temple site.

2. Gaur, Muslim city built on the site and with the ruins of LakshmaNãvatî, Hindu capital destroyed by the Muslims at the end of the twelfth century A.D. Temple materials have been used in the following monuments:

(i) Chhotî Sonã Masjid.
(ii) Qadam Rasûl Masjid (1530)
(iii) Tãntipãrã Masjid (1480)
(iv) Lãttan Masjid (1475)
(v) Badî Sonã Masjid (1526)
(vi) Dargãh of Makhadûm Akhî Sirãj Chishtî, disciple of Nizãmu’d-Dîn Awliya of Delhi (1347)
(vii) Darsbãrî or College of Theology.
(viii) Astãnã of Shãh Niãmatu’llãh.
(ix) Chãmkattî Masjid (1459).
(x) Chikkã Masjid.
(xi) Gunmant Masjid.  Converted temple.
(xii) Dãkhil Darwãzã.
(xiii) Kotwãlî Darwãzã.
(xiv) Fîruz Minãr.
(xv) ChaNDipur Darwãzã.
(xvi) Bãrãduãrî Masjid.
(xvii) Lukãchuri Masjid.
(xviii) Gumtî Darwãzã.
3. Malda
(i) Jãmi‘ Masjid (1566). Temple materials used.
(ii) Sak Mohan Masjid (1427). Temple site.

4. Pandua, Another Muslim city built with the ruins of LakshmaNãvatî. Temple materials have been used in the following monuments.

(i) Ãdina Masjid (1368)
(ii) Yaklakhî Masjid.
(iii) Chheh Hazãri or Dargãh of Nûr Qutb-i-Ãlam (1415).
(iv) Bãis Hazãrî or Khãnqãh of Jalãlu’d-Dîn Tabrizî (1244).
(v) Sonã Masjid.
(vi) Barn-like Masjid.
(vii) Qadam Rasûl.

XV. Midnapur District.

1. Gagneswar, Karambera Garh Masjid (1509). Šiva Temple site.
2. Hijli, Masnad-i-Ãlã-kî-Masjid. Temple site.
3. Kesiari, Masjid (1622). Mahãdeva Temple materials used.
4. Kharagpur, Mazãr of Pîr Lohãni. Temple site.

XVI. Murshidabad District.

1. Chuna Khali, Barbak-kî-Masjid. Temple site.
2. Murshidabad, Temple materials have been used in the following monuments:
(i) Katrã Masjid.
(ii) Motîjhîl Lake Embankments.
(iii) Sangî Dãlãn.
(iv) Mahal Sarã‘.
(v) Alîvardî Khãn-kî-Masjid.
(vi) Hazãrduãrî Mahal.
3. Rangamati, Dargãh on the Rãkshasî DãNgã. Stands on the ruins of a Buddhist Vihãra.

XVII. Noakhali District.

Begamganj, Bajrã Masjid. Converted temple.

XVIII. Pabna District.

Balandu, Madrasa. Converted Buddhist Vihãra.

XIX. Rajshahi District.

1. Bhaturia, Masjid. Šiva Temple materials used.
2. Kumarpura, Mazãr of Mukarram Shãh. Converted temple.
3. Kusumbha, Old Masjid (1490-93). Constructed entirely of temple materials.

XX. Rangpur District.

(i) BaDã Dargãh of Shãh Ismãil Ghãzî. Temple site.
(ii) Idgãh on a mound one mile away. Temple materials used.

XXI. Sylhet District.

1. Baniyachung, Famous Masjid. Temple site.
2. Sylhet
(i) Masjid of Shãh Jalãl. Temple site.
(ii) Mazãrs of Shãh Jalãl and many of his disciples. Temple sites.

XXII. 24-Parganas District.

1. Barasat, Mazãr of Pîr Ekdil Sãhib. Temple site.
2. Berchampa, Dargãh of Pîr GorãchãNd. Temple site.

I. Bhagalpur District.

1. Bhagalpur
(i) Dargãh of Hazrat Shãhbãz (1502). Temple site.
(ii) Masjid of Mujahidpur (1511-15). Temple site.
(iii) Dargãh of Makhdûm Shãh (1615). Temple site.
2. Champanagar
(i) Several Mazãrs. On ruins of Jain temples.
(ii) Masjid (1491). Jain Temple site.
3. Sultanganj, Masjid on the rock on the river bank. Temple site.

II. Gaya District.

1. Amthua, Masjid (1536). Temple site.
2. Gaya, Shãhî Masjid in Nadirganj (1617). Temple site.
3. Kako, Dargãh of Bîbî Kamãlo. Temple site.

III. Monghyr District.

1. Amoljhori, Muslim Graveyard. VishNu Temple site.
2. Charuanwan, Masjid (1576). Temple site.
3. Kharagpur
(i) Masjid (1656-57). Temple site.
(ii) Masjid (1695-96). Temple site.
4. Monghyr
(i) Fort Gates. Temple materials used.
(ii) Dargãh of Shãh Nafa‘ Chishtî (1497-98). Temple site.

IV. Muzaffarpur District.

Zaruha, MamûN-BhãNjã-kã-Mazãr. Temple materials used.

V. Nalanda District.

1. Biharsharif, Muslim capital built after destroying UdaNDapura which had a famous Buddhist Vihãra. Most of the Muslim monuments were built on the site and from materials of temples. The following are some of them:
(i) Dargãh of Makhdûmu’l Mulk Sharîfu’d-Dîn. (d. 1380).
(ii) BaDã Dargãh.
(iii) Chhotã Dargãh.
(iv) Bãrãdarî.
(v) Dargãh of Shãh Fazlu’llãh GosãîN.
(iv) Mazãr of Malik Ibrãhim Bayyû on Pîr PahãDî.
(vii) Kabîriu’d-Dîn-kî-Masjid (1353).
(viii) Mazãr of Sayyid Muhammad Siwistãni.
(ix) Chhotã Takiyã containing the Mazãr of Shãh Dîwãn Abdul Wahhãb.
(x) Dargãh of Shãh Qumais (1359-60).
(xi) Masjid in Chandpur Mahalla.
(xii) Jãmi‘ Masjid in Paharpur Mahalla.
2. Parbati, Dargãh of Hãjî Chandar or ChãNd Saudãgar. Temple materials used.
3. Shaikhupura, Dargãh of Shykh Sãhib. Temple materials used.

VI. Patna District.

1. Hilsa
(i) Dargãh of Shãh Jumman Madãrîyya (repaired in 1543). Temple site.
(ii) Masjid. (1604-05). Temple site.
2. Jana, Jãmi‘ Masjid (1539). Temple site.
3. Kailvan, Dargãh and Masjid. Temple site.
4. Maner, All Muslim monuments stand on temple sites. The following are prominent among them:
(i) BaDã Dargãh of Sultãnu’l Makhdûm Shãh Yãhyã Manerî.
(ii) Dargãh of Makhdûm Daulat Shãh.
(iii) Jãmi‘ Masjid.
(iv) Mazãr of Hãjî Nizãmu’d-Dîn.
5. Muhammadpur, Jãmi‘ Masjid (1510-11). Temple site.
6. Patna
(i) Patthar-kî-Masjid (1626). Temple materials used.
(ii) Begû Hajjãm-kî-Masjid (1510-11). Temple materials used.
(iii) Muslim Graveyard outside the Qiladari. On the ruins of Buddhist Vihãras.
(iv) Dargãh of Shãh Mîr Mansûr. On the ruins of a Buddhist Stûpa.
(v) Dargãh of Shãh Arzãni. On the site of a Buddhist Vihãra.
(vi) Dargãh of Pîr Damariyã. On the site of a Buddhist Vihãra.
(vii) Mirza Mãsûm-kî-Masjid (1605). Temple materials used.
(viii) Meetan Ghãt-kî-Masjid (1605). Temple site.
(ix) Katrã Masjid of Shãista Khãn. Temple site.
(x) Khwãja Ambar Masjid (1688-89). Temple site.
(xi) Bãbuganj Masjid (1683-86). Temple site.
(xii) Sher-Shãhî Masjid near Purab Darwaza. Temple site.
(xiii) Chamnî Ghãt-kî-Masjid. Temple site.
7. Phulwarisharif
(i) Dargãh of Shãh Pashmînãposh. Temple site.
(ii) Dargãh of Minhãju’d-Dîn Rastî. Temple site.
(iii) Dargãh of Lãl Miãn. Temple site.
(iv) Sangî Masjid (1549-50). Temple site.

VII. Purnea District.

1. Hadaf, Jãmi‘ Masjid. Temple site.
2. Puranea, Masjid in Keonlpura. Temple site.

VIII. Saran District.

1. Chirand, Masjid (1503-04). Temple site.
2. Narhan, Jãmi‘ Masjid. Temple site.
3. Tajpur-Basahi Mazãr of Khwãja Bãdshãh. Temple materials used.

IX. Shahabad District.

1. Rohtasgarh
(i) Masjid of Aurangzeb. Part of a temple converted.
(ii) Mazãr of Sãqî Sultãn. Temple site.
2. Sasaram, Mazãr of Chandan Shahîd Pîr. Temple site.

X. Vaishali District.

1. Amer, Mazãr of Pîr Qattãl. Temple materials used.
2. Chehar
(i) Fort. Temple materials used.
(ii) Jãmi‘ Masjid. Temple materials used.
3. Hajipur
(i) Hãjî Ilyãs-kî- Masjid. Converted temple.
(ii) Dargãh of Barkhurdãr Awliyã. Temple site.
(iii) Dargãh of Pîr Shattãrî. Temple site.
(iv) Dargãh of Hãjîu’l Harmain. Temple site.
(v) Dargãh of Pîr Jalãlu’d-Dîn. Temple site.
4. Basarh
(i) DargAh of Pîr Mîrãn. On top of a Buddhist Stûpa.
(ii) Mazãr of Shykh Muhammad Faizu’llãh Ali alias Qãzin Shattãrî. Temple site.
(iii) Graveyard. Many tombs built with temple materials.
(iv) Masjid. Temple site.

XI. District to be determined.

1. Hasanpura, Mazãr of Makhdûm Hasan. On the site of a Buddhist Stûpa,
2. Jhangira, Jãmi‘ Masjid. Temple site.

Islamic invaders destroyed the Hindu cities of Indarpat and Dhillikã with their extensive suburbs and built seven cities successively. The following Muslim monuments stand on the site of Hindu temples; temple materials can be seen in some of them.

I. Mehrauli

1. Quwwatu’l Islãm Masjid (1198).
2. Qutb Mînãr.
3. Maqbara of Shamsu’d-Dîn Iltutmish (1235.)
4. Dargãh of Shykh Qutbu’d-Dîn Bakhtyãr Kãkî (d. 1236).
5. Jahãz Mahal.
6. AlãI Darwãzã.
7. AlãI Mînãr.
8. Madrasa and Maqbara of Alãu’d-Dîn Khaljî.
9. Maqbara of Ghiyãu’d-Dîn Balban.
10. Masjid and Mazãr of Shykh Fazlu’llãh known as Jamãlî-Kamãlî.
11. MaDhî Masjid.

II. Sultan Ghari

Maqbara of Nãsiru’d-Dîn, son of Sultãn Shamsu’d-Dîn Iltutmish (1231).

III. Palam

Bãbrî (Ghazanfar) Masjid (1528-29).

IV. Begumpur

1. Masjid.
2. Bijai Mandal.
3. Kãlu Sarãi-kî-Masjid.
4. Mazãr of Shykh Najîbu’d-Dîn Mutwakkal Chishtî (d. 1272).

V. Tughlaqabad

Maqbara of Ghiyãsu’d-Dîn Tughlaq.

VI. Chiragh-Delhi

1. Dargãh of Shykh Nasîru’d-Dîn Chirãgh-i-Dehlî (d. 1356).
2. Maqbara of Bahlul Lodî.

VII. Nizamu’d-DIn

1. Dargãh and Jama‘t-Khãna Masjid of Shykh Nizãmu’d-Dîn Awliyã (d. 1325).
2. Kalãn Masjid.
3. ChauNsaTh-Khambã.
4. Maqbara of Khãn-i-Jahãn Tilangãnî.
5. Chillã of Nizãm’d-Dîn Awliyã.
6. Lãl Mahal.

VIII. Hauz Khas

1. Maqbara and Madrasa of Fîruz Shãh Tughlaq.
2. Dãdî-Potî-kã-Maqbara.
3. Biran-kã-Gumbad.
4. Chhotî and Sakrî Gumtî.
5. Nîlî Masjid (1505-06).
6. Idgãh (1404-00).
7. Bãgh-i-Ãlam-kã-Gumbad (1501).
8. Mazãr of Nûru’d-Dîn Mubãrak Ghaznawî (1234-35).

IX. Malviyanagar

1. Lãl Gumbad or the Mazãr of Shykh Kabîru’d-Dîn Awlîyã (1397).
2. Mazãr of Shykh Alãu’d-Dîn (1507).
3. Mazãr of Shykh Yûsuf Qattãl (d. 1527).
4. Khirkî Masjid.

X. Lodi Gardens

1. Maqbara of Muhammad Shãh.
2. BaDã Gumbad Masjid (1494).
3. Shîsh Gumbad.
4. Maqbara of Sikandar Lodî.

XI. Purana Qila

1. Sher Shãh Gate.
2. Qalã-i-Kuhna Masjid.
3. Khairu’l Manzil Masjid.

XII. Shahjahanabad

1. Kãlî Masjid at Turkman Gate.
2. Maqbara of Raziã Sultãn.
3. Jãmi‘ Masjid on Bhojala PahãDî.
4. Ghatã or Zainatu’l Masjid.
5. Dargãh of Shãh Turkmãn (1240).

XIII. Ramakrishnapuram

1. Tîn Burjî Maqbara.
2. Malik Munîr-kî-Masjid.
3. Wazîrpur-kã-Gumbad.
4. Mundã Gumbads.
5. Barã-Lão-kã-Gumbad.
6. Barje-kã-Gumbad.

XIV. The Ridge

1. Mãlchã Mahal,
2. Bhûlî Bhatiyãri-kã-Mahal.
3. Qadam Sharîf.
4. Chauburzã Masjid.
5. Pîr Ghaib.

XV. Wazirabad

Masjid and Mazãr of Shãh Ãlam.

XVI. South Extension
1. Kãle Khãn-kã-Gumbad.
2. Bhûre Khãn-kã-Gumbad.
3. Chhote Khãn-kã-Gumbad.
4. BaDe Khãn-kã-Gumbad.

XVII. Other Areas

1. Maqbara of Mubãrak Shãh in Kotla Mubarakpur.
2. Kushk Mahal in Tin Murti.
3. Sundar Burj in Sundarnagar.
4. Jãmi‘ Masjid in Kotla Fîruz Shãh.
5. Abdu’n-Nabî-kî-Masjid near Tilak Bridge.
6. Maqbara of Raushanãra Begum.
Jãmi‘ Masjid (1404). Temple site.

I. Ahmadabad District.

1. Ahmadabad, Materials of temples destroyed at Asaval, Patan and Chandravati were used in the building of this Muslim city and its monuments. Some of the monuments are listed below :
(i) Palace and Citadel of Bhadra.
(ii) Ahmad Shãh-kî-Masjid in Bhadra.
(iii) Jãmi‘ Masjid of Ahmad Shãh.
(iv) Haibat Khãn-kî-Masjid.
(v) Rãnî Rûpmatî-kî-Masjid.
(vi) Rãnî Bãî Harîr-kî-Masjid.
(vii) Malik SãraNg-kî-Masjid.
(viii) Mahfûz Khãn-kî-Masjid.
(ix) Sayyid Ãlam-kî-Masjid.
(x) Pattharwãli or Qutb Shãh-kî-Masjid.
(xi) Sakar Khãn-kî-Masjid.
(xii) Bãbã Lûlû-kî-Masjid.
(xiii) Shykh Hasan Muhammad Chishtî-kî-Masjid.
(xiv) Masjid at Isãnpur.
(xv) Masjid and Mazãr of Malik Sha‘bãn.
(xvi) Masjid and Mazãr of Rãnî Sîprî (Sabarai).
(xvii) Masjid and Mazãr of Shãh Ãlam at Vatva.
(xviii) Maqbara of Sultãn Ahmad Shãh I.
2. Dekwara, Masjid (1387). Temple site.
3. Dholka
(i) Masjid and Mazãr of Bahlol Khãn Ghãzî. Temple site.
(ii) Mazãr of Barkat Shahîd (1318). Temple site.
(iii) Tanka or Jãmi‘ Masjid (1316). Temple materials used.
(iv) Hillãl Khãn Qãzî-kî-Masjid (1333). Temple materials used.
(v) Khîrnî Masjid (1377). Converted Bãvan Jinãlaya Temple.
(vi) Kãlî Bazar Masjid (1364). Temple site.
4. Isapur, Masjid. Temple site.
5. Mandal
(i) Sayyid-kî-Masjid (1462). Temple site.
(ii) Jãmi‘ Masjid. Temple site.
6. Paldi, Patthar-kî-Masjid. Temple site.
7. Ranpur, Jãmi‘ Masjid (1524-25). Temple site.
8. Sarkhej
(i) Dargãh of Shykh Ahmad Khattû Ganj Baksh (d. 1445). Temple materials used.
(ii) Maqbara of Sultãn Mahmûd BegaDã. Temple materials used.
9. Usmanpur, Masjid and Mazãr of Sayyid Usmãn. Temple site.

II. Banaskantha District.

1. Haldvar, Mazãr of Lûn Shãh and Gûjar Shãh. Temple site.
2. Halol
(i) Ek Mînãr-kî-Masjid. Temple site.
(ii) PãNch MuNhDã-kî-Masjid. Temple site.
(iii) Jãmi‘ Masjid (1523-24). Temple site.
3. Malan, Jãmi‘ Masjid (1462). Temple materials used.

III. Baroda District.

1. Baroda
(i) Jãmi‘ Masjid (1504-05) Temple site.
(ii) Dargãh of Pîr Amîr Tãhir with its Ghãzî Masjid. Temple site.
(iii) Mazãr of Pîr GhoDã (1421-23). Temple site.
2. Dabhoi
(i) Dargãh of PãNch Bîbî. Temple materials used.
(ii) Mazãr of Mãî Dhokrî. Temple materials used.
(iii) Fort. Temple materials used.
(iv) Hira, Baroda, MabuDa and NandoDi Gates. Temple materials used.
(v) MahuNDi Masjid. Temple materials used.
3. Danteshwar, Mazãr of Qutbu’d-Dîn. Temple site.
4. Sankheda, Masjid (1515-16). Temple site.

IV. Bharuch District.

1. Amod, Jãmi‘ Masjid. Temple materials used.
2. Bharuch
(i) Jãmi‘ Masjid (1321). Brahmanical and Jain temple materials used.
(ii) Ghaznavî Masjid (1326). Temple site.
(iii) Idgãh (1326). Temple site.
(iv) ChunãwãDã Masjid (1458). Temple site.
(v) Qãzî-kî-Masjid (1609). Temple site.
(vi) Mazãr of Makhdûm Sharîfu’d-Dîn (1418). Temple site.
3. Jambusar, Jãmi‘ Masjid (1508-09). Temple site.
4. Tankaria, BaDî or Jãmi‘ Masjid (1453). Temple site.

V. Bhavnagar District.

1. Botad, Mazãr of Pîr Hamîr Khan. Temple site.
2. Tolaja, Idgãh and Dargãh of Hasan Pîr. Temple site.
3. Ghoda, Masjid (1614). Temple site.

VI. Jamnagar District.

1. Amran, Dargãh of Dawal Shãh. Temple materials used.
2. Bet Dwarka, Dargãh of Pîr Kirmãnî. Temple site.
3. Dwarka, Masjid (1473). Temple site.

VII. Junagarh District.

1. Junagarh
(i) BorwãD Masjid (1470). Temple site.
(ii) Jãmi‘ Masjid in Uparkot. Jain Temple site.
(iii) Masjid at Mãî GaDhechî. Converted Jain temple.
2. Loliyana, Dargãh of Madãr Shãh. Temple site.
3. Kutiana, Jãmi‘ Masjid. Temple site.
4. Mangrol
(i) Rahmat Masjid. Temple materials used.
(ii) Jãmi‘ Masjid (1382-83). Temple materials used.
(iii) JûnI Jail-kî-Masjid (1385-86). Temple site.
(iv) Revãlî Masjid (1386-87). Temple materials used.
(v) Masjid at Bandar. Temple materials used.
(vi) Dargãh near Revãli Masjid. Temple materials used.
(vii) Mazãr of Sayyid Sikandar alias Makhdûm Jahãniyã (1375). Temple materials used.
(viii) GaDhi Gate. Temple materials used.
5. Somnath Patan
(i) Bãzãr Masjid (1436). Temple site.
(ii) Chãndnî Masjid (1456). Temple site.
(iii) Qãzî-kî-Masjid (1539). Temple site.
(iv) PathãnwaDi Masjid (1326). Temple site.
(v) Muhammad Jamãdãr-kî-Masjid (1420). Temple site.
(vi) MiThãshãh Bhang-kî-Masjid (1428). Temple site.
(vii) Jãmi‘ Masjid. Temple materials used.
(viii) Masjid made out of the SomanAtha Temple of Kumãrapãla.
(ix) Masjid at the back of the Somanãtha Temple. Converted temple.
(x) Motã Darwãza. Temple materials used.
(xi) Mãîpurî Masjid on the way to Veraval. Temple materials used.
(xii) Dargãh of Manglûri Shãh near Mãîpurî Masjid. Temple materials used.
(xiii) Shahîd Mahmûd-kî-Masjid (1694). Temple site.
6. Vanasthali, Jãmi‘ Masjid. Converted VAmana Temple.
7. Veraval
(i) Jãmi‘ Masjid (1332). Temple site.
(ii) Nagîna Masjid (1488). Temple site.
(iii) Chowk Masjid. Temple site.
(iv) MãNDvî Masjid. Temple site.
(v) Mazãr of Sayyid Ishãq or Maghribî Shãh. Temple site.
(vi) Dargãh of Muhammad bin Hãjî Gilãnî. Temple site.

VIII. Kachchh District.

1. Bhadreshwar
(i) Solãkhambî Masjid. Jain Temple materials used.
(ii) ChhoTî Masjid. Jain Temple materials used.
(iii) Dargãh of Pîr Lãl Shãhbãz. Jain Temple materials used.
2. Bhuj
(i) Jãmi‘ Masjid. Temple site.
(ii) Gumbad of Bãbã Guru. Temple site.
3. Munra or MunDra, Seaport built from the materials of Jain temples of Bhadreshwar which were demolished by the Muslims; its Safed Masjid which can be seen from afar was built from the same materials.

IX. Kheda District.

1. Kapadwani
(i) Jãmi‘ Masjid (1370-71). Temple site.
(ii) Sãm Shahîd-kî-Masjid (1423). Temple site.
2. Khambhat
(i) Jãmi‘ Masjid (1325). Jain Temple materials used.
(ii) Masjid in Qaziwara (1326). Temple site.
(iii) Masjid in Undipet (1385). Temple site.
(iv) Sadi-i-Awwal Masjid (1423). Temple site.
(v) Fujrã-kî-Masjid (1427). Temple site.
(vi) Mazãr of Umar bin Ahmad Kãzrûnî. Jain Temple materials used.
(vii) Mazãr of Qãbil Shãh. Temple site.
(viii) Mazãr of Shykh Alî Jaulãqî known as Parwãz Shãh (1498). Temple site.
(ix) Mazãr of Shãh Bahlol Shahîd. Temple site.
(x) Maqbara of Ikhtîyãru’d-Daula (1316). Temple site.
(xi) IdgAh (1381-82). Temple site.
3. Mahuda, Jãmi‘ Masjid (1318). Temple site.
4. Sojali, Sayyid Mubãrak-kî-Masjid. Temple site.

X. Mehsana District.

1. Kadi
(i) Masjid (1384). Temple site.
(ii) Masjid (1583). Temple site.
2. Kheralu, Jãmi‘ Masjid (1409-10). Temple site.
3. Modhera, Rayadi Masjid. Temple site.
4. Munjpur, Jãmi‘ Masjid (1401-02). Temple site.
5. Patan
(i) Jãmi‘ Masjid (1357). Temple materials used.
(ii) Phûtî Mahalla or Pinjar Kot-kî-Masjid (1417). Temple site.
(iii) Bãzãr-kî-Masjid (1490). Temple site.
(iv) Masjid in a field that was the Sahasralinga Talav. Temple materials used.
(v) Masjid and Dargãh of Makhdûm Husãmu’d-Dîn Chishtî, disciple of Shykh Nizãmu’d-Dîn Awliya of Delhi. Temple materials used.
(vi) GûmDã Masjid (1542). Temple site.
(vii) RangrezoN-kî-Masjid (1410-11). Temple site.
(viii) Dargãh of Shykh Muhammad Turk Kãshgarî (1444-45). Temple site.
(ix) Dargãh of Shykh Farîd. Converted temple.
6. Sami, Jãmi‘ Masjid (1404). Temple site.
7. Sidhpur, Jãmi‘ Masjid. Built on the site and with the materials of the Rudra-mahãlaya Temple of Siddharãja JayasiMha.
8. Una, Dargãh of Hazrat Shãh Pîr. Temple site.
9. Vijapur
(i) Kalãn Masjid (1369-70). Temple site.
(ii) Mansûrî Masjid. Temple site.

XI. Panch Mahals District.

1. Champaner
(i) Jãmi‘ Masjid (1524). Temple site.
(ii) Bhadra of Mahmûd BegDã. Temple site.
(iii) Shahr-kî-Masjid.  Temple site.
2. Godhra, Masjid. Temple site.
3. Pavagadh
(i) Masjid built on top of the Devî Temple.
(ii) PãNch MuNhDã Masjid. Temple site.
(iii) Jãmi‘ Masjid. Temple site,
4. Rayania, Masjid (1499-1500). Temple site.

XII. Rajkot District.

1. Jasdan, Dargãh of Kãlû Pîr. Temple materials used.
2. Khakhrechi
(i) Jãmi‘ Masjid. Temple site.
(ii) Dargãh of Kamãl Shãh Pîr. Temple site.
3. Mahuva, Idgah (1418). Temple site.
4. Malia, Jãmi‘ Masjid. Temple site.
5. Morvi, Masjid (1553). Temple site.
6. Santrampur, Masjid (1499-1500). Temple site.

XIII. Sabarkantha District.

1. Hersel, Masjid (1405). Temple site.
2. Himmatnagar, Moti-Mohlat Masjid in Nani Vorwad (1471). Temple site.
3. Prantij
(i) Fath or Tekrewãlî Masjid (1382). Temple site.
(ii) Dargãh of Sikandar Shãh Shahîd (d. 1418). Temple materials used.

XIV.  Surat District.

1. Navasari
(i) Jãmi‘ Masjid (1340). Temple site.
(ii) Shãhî Masjid. Temple site.
2. Rander, The Jains who predominated in this town were expelled by Muslims and all temples of the former were converted into mosques. The following mosques stand on the site of and/or are constructed with materials from those temples:
(i) Jãmi‘ Masjid.
(ii) Nit Naurî Masjid.
(iii) Miãn-kî-Masjid.
(iv) Khãrwã Masjid.
(v) Munshî-kî-Masjid.
3. Surat
(i) Mirzã Sãmi-kî-Masjid (1336). Temple site.
(ii) Nau Sayyid Sãhib-kî-Masjid and the nine Mazãrs on Gopi Talav in honour of nine Ghãzîs. Temple sites.
(iii) Fort built in the reign of Farrukh Siyãr. Temple materials used.
(iv) Gopi Talav (1718). Temple materials used.
4. Tadkeshwar, Jãmi‘ Masjid (1513-14). Temple site.

XV. Surendranagar District.

1. Sara, DarbargaDh-kî-Masjid (1523). Temple site.
2. Vad Nagar, Masjid (1694). Stands on the site of the Hãtakešvara Mahãdeva temple.
3. Wadhwan, Jãmi‘ Masjid (1439). Temple site.

I. Ambala District.

1. Pinjor, Temple materials have been used in the walls and buildings of the Garden of Fidãi Khãn.
2. Sadhaura
(i) Masjid built in Khaljî times. Temple materials used.
(ii) Two Masjids built in the reign of Jahãngîr. Temple materials used.
(iii) QãzioN-kî-Masjid (1640). Temple site.
(iv) Abdul Wahãb-kî-Masjid. Temple site.
(v) Dargãh of Shãh Qumais. Temple site.

II. Faridabad District.

1. Faridabad, Jãmi‘ Masjid (1605). Temple site.
2. Nuh, Masjid (1392-93). Temple materials used.
3. Palwal
(i) Ikrãmwãlî or Jãmî‘ Masjid (1221). Temple materials used.
(ii) Idgãh (1211). Temple material Is used.
(iii) Mazãr of Sayyid Chirãgh. Temple site.
(iv) Mazãr of Ghãzî Shihãbu’d-Dîn. Temple site.
(v) Mazãr of Sayyid Wãrah. Temple site.

III. Gurgaon District.

1. Bawal, Masjid (1560). Temple site.
2. Farrukhnagar, Jãmi‘ Masjid (1276). Temple site.
3. Sohna
(i) Masjid (1561). Temple site.
(ii) Mazãrs known as Kãlã and Lãl Gumbad. Temple sites.

IV. Hissar District.

1. Barwala, Masjid (1289). Temple site.
2. Fatehabad
(i) Idgãh of Tughlaq times. Temple materials used.
(ii) Masjid built by Humãnyûn (1539). Temple site.
3. Hansi
(i) Idgãh built in the reign of Shamsu’d-Dîn Iltutmish. Temple site.
(ii) JulãhoN-kî-Masjid built in the same reign. Temple site.
(iii) Bû Alî Baksh Masjid (1226). Temple site.
(iv) Ãdina Masjid (1336). Temple site.
(v) Masjid in the Fort (1192). Temple site.
(vi) Shahîd-Ganj Masjid. Temple site.
(vii) Humãyûn-kî-Masjid. Temple materials used.
(viii) Dargãh of Niãmatu’llãh Walî with adjascent Bãrãdarî. Temple materials used.
(ix) Dargãh of Bû Alî Qalandar (1246). Temple site.
(x) Dargãh of Shykh Jalãlu’d-Dîn Haqq (1303). Temple site.
(xi) Dargãh of Mahammad Jamîl Shãh. Temple site.
(xii) Dargãh of Wilãyat Shãh Shahîd (1314). Temple site.
(xiii) Chahãr Qutb and its Jãmi‘ Masjid. Temple materials used.
(xiv) Fort and City Gates. Temple materials used.
4. Hissar, This city was built by Fîruz Shãh Tughlaq with temple materials brought mostly from Agroha which had been destroyed by Muhammad Ghurî in 1192.
(i) Lãt-kî-Masjid. Temple materials used.
(ii) Humayûn’s Jãmi‘ Masjid (1535). Temple site.
(iii) Masjid and Mazãr of Bahlul Lodî. Temple site.
(iv) Humãyûn’s Masjid outside Delhi Gate (1533). Temple site.
(v) Dargãh of Bãbã Prãn Pîr Pãdshãh. Temple materials used.
(vi) Fort of Fîruz Shãh Tughlaq. Temple materials used.
(vii) Jahãz Mahal. Converted Jain Temple.
(viii) Gûjarî Mahal. Temple materials used.
5. Sirsa
(i) Masjid in the Mazãr of Imãm Nãsir (1277). Temple materials used.
(ii) Bãbarî Masjid in the Sarai (1530). Temple site.
(iii) QãzIzãda-kî-Masjid (1540). Temple site.

V. Karnal District.

(i) Masjid opposite the Mazãr of Bû Alî Qalandar’s mother (1246). Temple site.
(ii) Bãbarî Masjid in Kãbulî Bãgh (1528-29). Temple site.
(iii) Mazãr of Shykh Jalãlu’d-Dîn (1499). Temple site.
(iv) Mazãr of Bû Alî Qalandar (1660). Temple site.

VI. Kurukshetra District.

1. Kaithal
(i) Dargãh of Shykh Salãhu’d-Dîn Abu’l Muhammad of Balkh (d. 1246). Temple materials used.
(ii) Shãh Wilãyat-kî-Masjid (1657-58). Temple site.
(iii) Jãmi‘ Masjid. Temple materials used.
(iv) Madrasa. Temple materials used.
2. Kurukshetra, Madrasa on the Tila. Temple site.
3. Thanesar
(i) Dargãh and Madrasa of Shykh Chillî or Chehalî Bannurî. Temple materials used.
(ii) Pathariã Masjid near Harsh-kã-Tîlã. Temple materials used.
(iii) Chînîwãlî Masjid. Temple materials used.

VII.  Mahendergarh District.

Narnaul, Mazar of Pîr Turk Shahîd or Shãh Wilãyat (d. 1137). Temple site.

VIII. Rohtak District.

1. Jhajjar, Kãlî Masjid (1397). Temple site.
2. Maham,
(i) PirzãdoN-kî-Masjid built in Bãbar’s reign (1529). Temple site.
(ii) Humãyûn’s Jãmi‘ Masjid (1531). Temple site.
(iii) QasãiyoN-kî-Masjid. Temple site.
(iv) Masjid (1669). Temple site.
(v) Daulat Khãn-kî-Masjid (1696). Temple site.
3. Rohtak
(i) Dînî Masjid (1309). Temple materials used.
(ii) Masjid in the Fort (1324). Temple site.
(iii) Bãbar’s Masjid-i-Khurd (1527-28). Temple site.
(iv) Bãbar’s RãjpûtoN-kî-Masjid. (1528). Temple site.
(v) Second or Humãyûn’s Masjid in the Fort (1538). Temple site.
(vi) Masjid at Gokaran (1558). Temple site.
(vii) DogroN Wãlî Masjid (1571). Temple site.
(viii) Mast Khãn-kî-Masjid (1558-59) Temple site.

IX. Sonepat District.

1. Gohana, Dargãh of Shãh Ziãu’d-Dîn Muhammad. Temple site.
2. Sonepat
(i) Masjid and Mazãr of Imãm Nãsir (renovated in 1277). Temple site.
(ii) Bãbar’s ShykhzãdoN-kî-Masjid (1530). Temple site.
(iii) Mazãr of Khwãja Khizr. Temple site.
(iv) Humãyûn's Masjid (1538). Temple site.
Kangra, Jahãngîrî Gate. Temple materials used.

I. Bangalore District.

1. Dodda-Ballapur, Dargãh of Muhiu’d-Dîn Chishtî of Ajodhan (d. 1700). Temple materials used.
2. Hoskot
(i) Dargãh of Saballî Sãhib. Temple site.
(ii) Dargãh of Qãsim Sãhib. Converted temple.

II. Belgaum District.

1. Belgaum
(i) Masjid-i-Safa in the Fort (1519). Temple site.
(ii) Jãmi‘ Masjid (1585-86). Temple site.
(iii) Mazãr of Badru’d-Dîn Shãh in the Fort (1351-52). Temple site.
2. Gokak, Masjid. Temple site.
3. Hukeri
(i) Mãn Sahib-kî-Dargãh (1567-68). Temple site.
(ii) Kãlî Masjid (1584). Temple materials used.
4. Kudachi
(i) Dargãh of Makhdûm Shãh Walî. Temple site.
(ii) Mazãr of Shykh Muhammad Sirãju’d-Dîn Pîrdãdî. Temple site.
5. Madbhavi, Masjid. Šiva Temple materials used.
6. Raibag, Jãmi‘ Masjid. Temple site,
7. Sampgaon, Masjid. Temple site.

III. Bellary District.

1. Bellary, Masjid built by Tîpû Sultãn (1789-90). Temple site.
2. Hampi, Masjid and Idgãh in the ruins of Vijayanagar. Temple materials used.
3. Hospet, Masjid in Bazar Street built by Tîpû Sultãn (1795-96). Temple site.
4. Huvinhadgalli, Fort. Temple materials used.
5. Kanchagarabelgallu, Dargãh of Husain Shãh. Temple site.
6. Kudtani, Dargãh. Durgešvara Temple materials used.
7. Sandur, Jãmi‘ Masjid. Temple site.
8. Siruguppa, Lãd Khãn Masjid (1674). Temple site.
9. Sultanpuram, Masjid on the rock. Temple site.

IV. Bidar District.

1. Bidar, Ancient Hindu city transformed into a Muslim capital. The following monuments stand on temple sites and/or temple materials have been used in their construction:
(i) Solã Khambã Masjid (1326-27).
(ii) Jãmi‘ Masjid of the Bahmanîs.
(iii) Mukhtãr Khãn-kî-Masjid (1671).
(iv) Kãlî Masjid (1694).
(v) Masjid west of Kãlî Masjid (1697-98).
(vi) Farrah-Bãgh Masjid, 3 km outside the city (1671).
(vii) Dargãh of Hazrat Khalîlu’llãh at Ashtûr (1440).
(viii) Dargãh of Shãh Shamsu’d-Dîn Muhammad Qãdirî known as Multãnî Pãdshãh.
(ix) Dargãh of Shãh Waliu’llãh-al-Husainî.
(x) Dargãh of Shãh Zainu’l-Dîn Ganj Nishîn.
(xi) Dargãh and Masjid of Mahbûb Subhãnî.
(xii) Mazãr of Ahmad Shãh Walî at Ashtûr (1436).
(xiii) Mazãr of Shãh Abdul Azîz (1484).
(xiv) Takht Mahal.
(xv) Gagan Mahal.
(xvi) Madrasa of Mahmûd Gawãn.
2. Chandpur, Masjid (1673-74). Temple site.
3. Chillergi, Jãmi‘ Masjid (1381). Temple site.
4. Kalyani, Capital of the Later Chãlukyas. All their temples were either demolished or converted into mosques.
(i) Jãmi‘ Masjid (1323). Temple site.
(ii) Masjid (1406). Temple site.
(iii) Masjid in Mahalla Shahpur (1586-87). Temple site.
(iv) Dargãh of Maulãna Yãqûb. Temple site.
(v) Dargãh of Sayyid Pîr Pãshã. Temple site.
(vi) Fort Walls and Towers. Temple materials used.
(vii) Nawãb’s Bungalow. Temple materials used.
5. Kohir
(i) Jãmi‘ Masjid. Temple site.
(ii) Dargãhs of two Muslim saints. Temple sites.
6. Shahpur, Masjid (1586-87). Temple site.
7. Udbal, Jãmi‘ Masjid (1661-62). Temple site.

V. Bijapur District.

1. Afzalpur, Mahal Masjid. Trikûta Temple materials used.
2. Badami, Second Gateway of the Hill Fort. VishNu Temple materials used.
3. Bekkunal, Dargãh outside the village. Temple materials used.
4. Bijapur, Ancient Hindu city transformed into a Muslim capital. The following monuments are built on temple sites and/or temple materials have been used in their construction:
(i) Jãmi‘ Masjid (1498-99).
(ii) Karîmu’d-Dîn-kî-Masjid in the Ãrk (1320-21).
(iii) ChhoTã Masjid on way to Mangoli Gate.
(iv) Khwãja Sambal-kî-Masjid (1522-13).
(v) Makka Masjid.
(vi) AnDû Masjid.
(vii) Zangîrî Masjid.
(viii) Bukhãrã Masjid (1536-37).
(ix) Dakhînî Idgah (1538-39).
(x) Masjid and Rauza of Ibrãhîm II Adil Shãh (1626).
(xi) Gol Gumbaz or the Rauza of Muhammad Adil Shãh.
(xii) JoD-Gumbad.
(xiii) Nau-Gumbad.
(xiv) Dargãh of Shãh Mûsã Qãdiri.
(xv) Gagan Mahal.
(xvi) Mihtar Mahal.
(xvii) Asar Mahal.
(xvii) Anand Mahal and Masjid (1495).
(xviii) Sãt Manzil.
(xix) Ãrk or citadel.
(xx) Mazãr of Pîr Ma‘barî Khandãyat.
(xxi) Mazãr of Pîr Jumnã.
(xxii) Dargãh of Shãh Mîrãnji Shamsu’l-Haq Chishtî on Shahpur Hill.
5. Hadginhali, Dargãh. Temple materials used.
6. Horti, Masjid. Temple materials used.
7. Inglesvara, Muhiu’d-Dîn Sãhib-kî-Masjid. Munipã Samãdhi materials used.
8. Jirankalgi, Masjid. Temple materials used.
9. Kalleeri, Masjid near the village Chawdi. Kešavadeva Temple materials used.
10. Mamdapur
(i) Jãmi‘ Masjid. Temple site.
(ii) Mazãr of Kamãl Sãhib. Temple site.
(iii) Mazãr of Sadle Sãhib of Makka. Temple site.
11. Naltvad, Masjid (1315). Temple materials used.
12. Pirapur, Dargãh. Temple site.
13. Salvadigi, Masjid. Temple materials used.
14. Sarur, Masjid. Temple materials used.
15. Segaon, Dargãh. Temple site.
16. Takli, Masjid. Temple materials used.
17. Talikota
(i) Jãmi‘ Masjid. Jain Temple materials used.
(ii) PãNch Pîr-kî-Masjid and Ganji-i-Shahîdãn. Temple site.
18. Utagi, Masjid (1323). Temple site.

VI. Chickmanglur District.

Baba Budan, Mazãr of Dãdã Hayãt Mîr Qalandar. Dattãtreya Temple site.

VII. Chitaldurg District.

Harihar, Masjid on top of Harîharešvara Temple.

VIII. Dharwad District.

1. Alnavar, Jãmi‘ Masjid. Jain Temple materials used.
2. Bankapur
(i) Masjid (1538-39). Temple site.
(ii) Jãmi‘ Masjid (1602-03). Temple site.
(iii) Graveyard with a Masjid. Temple site.
(iv) Dongar-kî-Masjid. Temple site.
(v) Dargãh of Shãh Alãu’d-Dîn-Qãdirî. Temple site.
(vi) Fort (1590-91). Temple materials used,
3. Balur, Masjid. Temple materials used.
4. Dambal, Mazãr of Shãh Abdu’llãh Walî. Temple materials used.
5. Dandapur, Jãmi‘ Masjid. Temple materials used.
6. Dharwad, Masjid on Mailarling Hill. Converted Jain Temple.
7. Hangal
(i) Jãmi‘ Masjid. Temple site.
(ii) Masjid in the Fort. Temple site.
8. Hubli, 17 Masjids built by Aurangzeb in 1675 and after Temple sites.
9. Hulgur
(i) Dargãh of Sayyid Shãh Qãdirî. Temple site.
(ii) Masjid near the above Dargãh. Temple site.
10. Lakshmeshwar, Kãlî Masjid. Temple site.
11. Misrikot, Jãmi‘ Masjid (1585-86). Temple site.
12. Mogha, Jãmi‘ Masjid. Ãdityadeva Temple materials used.
13. Ranebennur, Qalã, Masjid (1742). Temple site.
14. Savanur
(i) Jãmi‘ Masjid reconstructed in 1847-48. Temple site.
(ii) Dargãh of Khairu’llãh Shãh Bãdshãh. Temple site.
(iii) Dargãh and Masjid of Shãh Kamãl. Temple site.

IX. Gulbarga District.

1. Chincholi, Dargãh. Temple site.
2. Dornhalli, Masjid. Temple site.
3. Firozabad
(i) Jãmi‘ Masjid (1406). Temple site.
(ii) Dargãh of Shãh Khalîfatu’r-Rahmãn Qãdirî (d. 1421). Temple site.
4. Gobur, Dargãh. Ratnarãya Jinãlaya Temple materials used.
5. Gogi
(i) Araba’a Masjid (1338). Temple site.
(ii) Dargãh of Pîr Chandã, Husainî (1454). Temple site.
(iii) Chillã of Shãh Habîbu’llãh (1535-36). Temple site.
6. Gulbarga, Ancient Hindu city converted into a Muslim capital and the following among other monuments built on temple sites and/or with temple materials:
(i) Kalãn Masjid in Mahalla Mominpura (1373).
(ii) Masjid in Shah Bazar (1379).
(iii) Jãmi‘ Masjid in the Fort (1367).
(iv) Masjid-i-Langar in the Mazãr of Hãjî Zaida.
(v) Masjid near the Farman Talab (1353-54).
(vi) Dargãh of Sayyid Muhammad Husainî Bandã, Nawãz Gesû Darãz Chishtî, disciple of Shykh Nasîru’d-Dîn Mahmûd ChîrAgh-i-Dihlî.
(vii) Mazãr of Shykh Muhammad Sirãju’d-Dîn Junaidî.
(viii) Mazãr of Hãjî Zaida of Maragh (1434)
(ix) Mazãr of Sayyid Husainu’d-Dîn Tigh-i-Barhna (naked sword).
(x) Fort Walls and Gates.
7. Gulsharam, Dargãh and Masjid of Shãh Jalãl Husainî (1553). Temple site.
8. Malkhed, Dargãh of Sayyid Ja‘far Husainî in the Fort. Temple site.
9. Sagar
(i) Dargãh of Sûfî Sarmast Chishtî, disciple of Nîzãmu’d-Dîn Awlîya of Delhi. Temple site.
(ii) Dargãh of Munawwar Bãdshãh. Temple site.
(iii) Ãshur Khãna Masjid (1390-91). Temple site.
(iv) Fort (1411-12). Temple materials used.
10. Seram, Jãmi‘ Masjid. Temple materials used.
11. Shah Bazar, Jãmi‘ Masjid. Temple site.
12. Shahpur
(i) Dargãh of Mûsã Qãdirî (1667-68). Temple site.
(ii) Dargãh of Muhammad Qãdirî (1627). Temple site.
(iii) Dargãh of IbrAhIm Qãdirî. Temple site.
13. Yadgir
(i) Ãthãn Masjid (1573). Temple site.
(ii) Jãmi‘ Masjid. Temple site.

X. Kolar District.

1. Mulbagal, Dargãh of Hyder Walî. Temple site.
2. Nandi, Masjid east of the village. Temple site.

XI. Mandya District.

1. Pandavapur, Masjid-i-Ala. Temple site.
2. Srirangapatnam, Jãmi‘ Masjid built by Tîpû Sultãn (1787). Stands on the site of the Ãñjaneya Temple.

XII. Mysore District.

Tonnur, Mazãr said to be that of Sayyid Sãlãr Mas’ûd (1358). Temple materials used.

XIII. North Kanara District.

1. Bhatkal, Jãmi‘ Masjid (1447-48). Temple site.
2. Haliyal, Masjid in the Fort. Temple materials used.

XIV. Raichur District.

1. Jaladurga, Dargãh of Muhammad Sarwar. Temple site.
2. Kallur, Two Masjids. Temple sites.
3. Koppal
(i) Jãmi‘ Masjid. Temple site.
(ii) Araboñ-kî-Masjid. Temple site.
(iii) Dargãh of Sailãnî Pãshã. Temple site.
4. Manvi, Masjid (1406-07). Temple materials used.
5. Mudgal
(i) Masjid at Kati Darwaza of the Fort. Temple materials used.
(ii) Naî Masjid (1583-84). Temple site.
(iii) Two Ashur Khãnas built by Ali I Adil Shah. Temple site.
(iv) Fort (1588). Temple materials used.
6. Raichur
(i) Yak Mînãr Masjid in the Fort (1503). Temple site.
(ii) Daftarî Masjid in the Fort (1498-99). Temple materials used.
(iii) Hazãr Baig Masjid (1511-12). Temple site
(iv) Jãmi‘ Masjid in the Fort (1622-23). Temple materials used.
(v) Jãmi‘ Masjid in Sarafa Bazar (1628-29). Temple site.
(vi) Kãlî Masjid in the Fort. Temple materials used.
(vii) Masjid inside the Naurangi. Temple materials used.
(viii) Chowk-kî-Masjid. Temple site.
(ix) Jahãniyã Masjid (1700-01). Temple site.
(x) Dargãh of Shãh Mîr Hasan and Mîr Husain. Temple materials used.
(xi) Dargãh of Sayyid Abdul Husainî at Sikandari Gate. Temple site.
(xii) Pãñch Bîbî Dargãh at Bala Hissar. Temple materials used.
(xiii) Mazãr of Pîr Sailãnî Shãh in the Fort. Temple materials used.
(xiv) Fort. Temple materials used.
7. Sindhanur, Ãlamgîrî Masjid near the Gumbad. Temple site.
8. Tawagera, Dargãh of Bandã Nawãz. Temple site.

XV. Shimoga District.

1. Almel, Mazãr of Ghãlib Shãh. Temple site.
2. Basavpatna, Masjid near the Fort. Temple site.
3. Nagar, Masjid built by Tîpû Sultãn. Temple materials used.
4. Sante Bennur, Randhullã Khãn-kî-Masjid (1637). Materials of the Rañganãtha Temple used.
5. Sirajpur, Masjid built on top of the Chhinnakešava Temple for housing Prophet Muhammad’s hair.  Images defaced and mutilated. Part of the temple used as a laterine.

XVI. Tumkur District,

1. Sira
(i) Ibrãhîm Rauza with many Mazãrs and a Jãmi‘ Masjid. Converted temples.
(ii) Dargãh of Malik Rihãn. Temple site.
2. Sirol, Jãmi‘ Masjid (1696). Temple site.

1. Amburher, Ziãrat of Farrukhzãd Sãhib. Temple materials used.
2. Badgam

(i) Ziãrat of Abban Shãh in Ghagarpur. Temple site.
(ii) Ziãrat of Sayyid Swãlia Shãh in Narbai. Temple site.
3. Bijbehra, Masjid. Temple site.
4. Bumzu
(i) Ziãrat of Bãbã Bãmdîn. Converted Bhîmakešava. Temple.
(ii) Ziãrat of Ruknu’d-Dîn Rishî. Converted temple.
(iii) Ziãrat farther up the valley. Converted temple.
5. Gulmarg, Ziãrat of Bãbã Imãm Dîn Rishî. Temple materials used.
6. Gupkar, Ziãrat of Jyesther and other monuments. Temple materials used.
7. Hutmar, Jãmi‘ Masjid. Temple materials used.
8. Khonmuh, Several Ziãrats. Temple materials used.
9. Kitshom, Two Masjids. Stand amidst temple ruins.
10. Loduv, Ziãrat. Temple materials used.
11. Lohar, Ziãrat of Sayyid Chãnan Ghãzî. Temple site.
12. Lokbavan, Garden Pavilion. Temple materials from Lokabhavana Tîrtha used.
13. Marsus, Ziãrat of Shãh Abdu’llãh. Temple site.
14. Pampor
(i) Ziãrat of Mîr Muhammad Hamadãni. VishNusvãmin Temple materials used.
(ii) Several other Ziãrats. Temple materials used.
15. Pandrethan, Masjid. Meruvardhanaswãmin Temple materials used.
16. Sangar, Ziãrat. Temple materials used.
17. Sar, Ziãrat of Khwãja Khîzr. Temple materials used.
18. Shalmar Garden, Pavilion on the 4th terrace. Temple materials used.
19. Srinagar, Ancient Hindu city converted into a Muslim capital. The following monuments stand on temple sites and most of them have been constructed with temple materials.
(i) Ziãrat of Bahãu’d-Dîn SAhib. Jayasvãmin Temple converted.
(ii) Graveyard and its Gate below the 4th Bridge.
(iii) Dargãh and Masjid of Shãh-i-Hamadãnî in Kalashpura. On the site of the Kãlî Temple.
(iv) Nau or Patthar-kî-Masjid built by Nûr Jahãn.
(v) Graveyard near the Nau Masjid.
(vi) Ziãrat of Malik Sãhib in Didd Mar. On the site of Diddã Matha.
(vii) Masjid and Madrasa and Graveyard near Vicharnag. On the site and from materials of the Vikramešvara Temple.
(viii) Madnî Sãhib-kî-Masjid at Zadibal.
(ix) Ziãrat south-west of Madnî Sãhib-kî-Masjid.
(x) Jãmi‘ Masjid originally built by Sikandar Butshikan and reconstructed in later times.
(xi) Ziãrat named Nûr Pirastãn. NarendrasãAmin Temple converted.
(xii) Maqbara of Sultãn Zain’ul-Abidin.
(xiii) Maqbara of Zainu’l-Ãbidin’s mother, queen of Sikandar Butshikan.
(xiv) Ziãrat of Pîr Hãjî Muhammad Sãhib, south-west of the Jãmi‘ Masjid. VishNu RaNasvãmin Temple converted.
(xv) Ziãrats of Makhdûm Sãhib and Akhun Mulla on Hari Parbat. Bhîmasvamin Temple converted.
(xvi) Masjid of Akhun Mulla built by Dãrã Shikoh.
(xvii) Ziãrat of Pîr Muhammad Basûr in Khandbavan. On the site of Skandabhavana Vihãra.
(xviii) Graveyard north-east of Khandbavan.
(xix) Dargãh of Pîr Dastgîr.
(xx) Dargãh of Naqshbandî.
(xxi) Ramparts and Kathi Gate of the Fort built by Akbar.
(xxii) Stone embankments on both sides and for several miles of the Jhelum river as its passes through Srinagar.
(xxiii) Astãna of MIr Shamsu’d-Dîn Syed Muhammad Irãqî.
20. Sudarbal, Ziãrat of Hazrat Bãl. Temple site.
21. Tapar, Bund from Naidkhai to Sopor built by Zainu’l-Ãbidin. Materials from Narendrešvara Temple used.
22. Theda, Ziãrat near Dampor. Temple materials used.
23. Vernag, Stone enclosure built by Jahãngîr. Temple materials used.
24. Wular Lake
(i) Suna Lanka, pleasure haunt built by Zainu’l-Ãbidîn in the midst of the Lake. Temple materials used.
(ii) Dargãh of Shukru’d-DIn on the western shore. Temple site.
25. Zukur, Several Ziãrats and Maqbaras. Temple materials used.

1. Kollam, (Kozhikode District), Jãmi‘ Masjid. Temple materials used.
2. Palghat, Fort built by Tîpû Sultãn. Temple materials used.


1. Kalpeni, Muhiu’d-Dîn-Pallî Masjid. Temple site.
2. Kavarati, Prot-Pallî Masjid. Temple site.


I. Betul District.

1. Pattan, Dargãh of Sulaimãn Shãh. Temple site.
2. Umri, Dargãh of Rahmãn Shãh. Temple site.

II. Bhopal District.

1. Berasia, Masjid (1716). Temple site.
2. Bhopal, Jãmi‘ Masjid built by Qudsia Begum. SabhãmaNDala Temple site.

III. Bilaspur District.

(i) Dargãh of Pãñch Pîr. Temple site.
(ii) Nagînã Mahal. Temple site.
(iii) Idgãh. Temple site.
(iv) Masjid with three domes. Temple site.

IV. Damoh District.

(i) Dargãh of Ghãzî Miãn. Temple site.
(ii) Fort. Temple materials used.

V. Dewas District.

1. Dewas
(i) Masjid (1562). Temple site.
(ii) Masjid (1705). Temple site.
(iii) Masjid (1707). Temple site.
2. Gandhawal, Graveyard inside the village. Jain Temple materials used.
3. Sarangpur
(i) Madrasa (1493). Temple site.
(ii) Jãmi‘ Masjid (1640). Temple site.
(iii) Pîr Jãn-kî-Bhãtî Masjid. Temple site.
(iv) Fort. Temple materials used.
4. Unchod, Idgãh (1681). Temple site.

VI. Dhar District.

1. Dhar, Capital of Rãjã Bhoja Paramãra converted into a Muslim capital. The following Muslim monuments tell their own story:
(i) Kamãl Maulã Masjid. Temple materials used.
(ii) Lãt Masjid (1405). Jain Temple materials used.
(iii) Mazãr of Abdu’llãh Shãh Changãl. Temple site.
2. Mandu, An ancient Hindu city converted into a Muslim capital and the following monuments built on the sites of and/or with materials from temples
(i) Jãmi‘ Masjid (1454).
(ii) Dilãwar Khãn-kî-Masjid (1405).
(iii) ChhoTî Jãmi‘ Masjid.
(iv) Pahredãroñ-kî-Masjid (1417).
(v) Malik Mughîs-kî-Masjid.
(vi) Maqbara of Hushãng Shãh.
(vii) Jahãz Mahal.
(viii) Tawîl Mahal.
(ix) Nãhar Jharokhã.
(x) Hindolã Mahal.
(xi) Rupmatî Pavilion.
(xii) Ashrafî Mahal.
(xiii) Dãî-kî-Chhotî Bahen-kã-Mahal.
(xiv) Bãz Bahãdur-kã-Mahal.
(xv) Nîlkanth Mahal.
(xvi) Chhappan Mahal.
(xvii) Fort and Gates.
(xviii) Gadã-Shãh-kã-Mahal.
(xix) Hammãm Complex.

VII. Dholpur District.

Bari, Masjid (1346 or 1351). Temple site.

VIII. East Nimar District.

1. Bhadgaon, Jãmi‘ Masjid (1328). Temple site.
2. Jhiri, Masjid (1581). Temple site.
3. Khandwa, Masjid (1619-20). Temple site.

IX. Guna District.

1. Chanderi, Muslim city built from the ruins of the old or Budhi Chanderi nearby. The following monuments stand on the sites of temples and/or have temple materials used in them:
(i) Masjid (1392).
(ii) Motî Masjid.
(iii) Jãmi‘ Masjid.
(iv) PãñchmûhñDã Masjid.
(v) Qurbãni Chabûtrã.
(vi) Dargãh of Mewã Shãh.
(vii) Mazãr known as BaDã Madrasa.
(viii) Mazãr known as ChhoTã Madrasa.
(ix) Rãjã-kã-Maqbara.
(x) Rãnî-kã-Maqbara.
(xi) Battîsî BãoDî Masjid (1488).
(xii) Hãthîpur-kî-Masjid (1691).
(xiii) Mazãr of Shykh Burhanu’d-Dîn.
(xiv) Fort.
(xv) Kushk Mahal.
(xvi) Idgãh (1495).
2. Pipari, Masjid (1451). Temple site.
3. Shadoragaon, Jãmi‘ Masjid (1621-22). Temple site.

X. Gwalior District.

1. Gwalior
(i) Dargãh of Muhammad Ghaus. Temple site.
(ii) Jãmi‘ Masjid near Gûjarî Mahal. Temple site.
(iii) Masjid near Ganesh Gate. Gawãlîpã Temple site.
(iv) Graveyards on east and west of the Fort. Temple sites.
2. Jajao, Lãl Patthar-kî-Masjid, Temple materials used.
3. Mundrail, Several Masjids (1504). Temple sites.
4. Sipri, Several Masjids and Mazãrs. Temple materials used.

XI. Indore District.

1. Depalpur, Masjid (1670). Temple site.
2. Maheshwar
(i) ShãhI Masjid. Temple site.
(ii) Fort. Temple materials used.
3. Mehdipur
(i) Mazãr of Godãr Shãh. Temple site.
(ii) Fort. Temple materials used.
4. Sanwar, Masjid (1674). Temple site.

XII. Mandsaur District.

1. Kayampur
(i) Masjid (1676). Temple site.
(ii) Idgãh (1701-02). Temple site.
2. Mandsaur
(i) Jãmi‘ Masjid. Temple materials used.
(ii) Fort. Temple materials used.
3. Rampura, Pãdshãhî BãoDi. Temple materials used.

XIII. Morena District.

(i) Masjid (1561-62). Temple site.
(ii) Masjid (1586-87). Temple site.
(iii) Masjid (1697-98). Temple site.

XIV. Panna District.

1. Ajaigarh, Fort. Temple materials used.
2. Nachna, Masjid. Converted temple.

XV. Raisen District.

Palmyka Mandir-Masjid. Temple materials used.

XVI. Rajgarh District.

Khujner, Mazãr of Dãwal Shãh.  Temple materials used.

XVII. Ratlam District.

Barauda, Masjid (1452-56). Temple site.

XVIII. Sagar District.

1. Dhamoni, Dargãh of Bãl Jatî Shãh (1671). Temple site.
2. Kanjia
(i) Khãn Sãhib-kî-Masjid (1594-95). Temple site.
(ii) Idgãh (1640). Temple site.
(iv) Alamgîrî Masjid (1703). Temple site.
(iii) Qalã-kî-Masjid (1643). Temple site.
3. Khimlasa, Pãñch Pîr. Temple site.

XIX. Sehore District.

Masjid (1332). Temple site.

XX. Shajapur District.

Agartal, Masjid. Temple site.

XXI. Shivpuri District.

1. Narod, Zanzãrî Masjid. Temple site.
2. Narwar
(i) Dargãh of Shãh Madãr. Temple site.
(ii) Jãmi‘ Masjid (1509). Temple materials used.
(iii) Masjid inside Havapaur Gate (1509). Temple site.
3. Pawaya
(i) Fort. Temple materials used.
(ii) Several other Muslim monuments. Temple materials used.
4. Ranod
(i) Masjid (1331-32). Temple site.
(ii) Masjid (1441). Temple site.
(iii) Masjid (1633). Temple site.
(iv) Masjid (1640). Temple site.
5. Shivpuri, Jãmi‘ Masjid (1440). Temple site.

XXII. Ujjain District.

1. Barnagar, Masjid (1418). Temple site.
2. Ujjain,
(i) Jãmi‘ Masjid known as Binã-nîv-kî-Masjid (1403-04). Temple site.
(ii) Masjid unearthed near Chaubis Khamba Gate. Temple materials used.
(iii) MochI Masjid. Converted temple.

XXIII. Vidisha District.

1. Basoda, Masjid (1720-21). Temple site.
2. Bhonrasa,
(i) Qalandarî Masjid. Temple materials used.
(ii) Jãgîrdãr-kî-Masjid (1683). Temple site.
(iii) BaDî Masjid in Bada Bagh (1685). Temple site.
(iv) Bandi Bagh-kî-Masjid. Temple site.
(v) Bãrã-Khambã Masjid. Temple site.
(vi) Ek-Khambã Masjid. Temple site.
(vii) Binã-nîv-kî-Masjid. Temple site.
(viii) Graveyard in Bandi Bagh. Amidst temple ruins.
(ix) Idgãh. Temple site.
(x) Fort (1594). Temple materials used.
3. Parasari, Masjid (1694-95). Temple site.
4. Renkla, Masjid. (1647-48). Temple site.
5. Shamsabad, Masjid (1641). Temple site.
6. Sironj
(i) Ãlamgîrî Masjid (1662-63). Temple site.
(ii) Masjid in Mahalla Rakabganj (1657-58). Temple site.
(iii) DargAh of Shykh Sãhib (d. 1657). Temple site.
7. Tal, Masjid (1644-45). Temple site.
8. Udaypur
(i) Masjid (1336). Temple materials used.
(ii) Masjid built by Aurangzeb. Temple materials used.
(iii) Motî Masjid (1488-89). Temple site.
(iv) Masjid (1549). Temple site.
(v) Two Masjids of Shãh Jahãn. Temple sites.
(vi) Masjid of Jahãngîr. Temple site.
9. Vidisha
(i) Ãlamgîrî or VijaimaNDal Masjid (1682). Converted temple.
(ii) Masjid on Lohangi Hill (1457). Temple site.
(iii) Shãh Jahãni Masjid (1650-51). Temple site.
(iv) City Wall. Temple materials used,

XXIV. West Nimar District.

1. Asirgarh
(i) Jãmi‘ Masjid (1584). Temple site.
(ii) Masjid built in the reign of Shãh Jahãn. Temple site.
(iii) Idgãh (1588-89). Temple site.
(iv) Fort. Temple materials used.
2. Bhikangaon, Idgãh (1643-44). Temple site.
3. Baidia, Masjid (1456-57). Temple site.
4. Burhanpur
(i) Jãmi‘ Masjid (1588-89). Temple site.
(ii) Bîbî Sãhib-kî-Masjid. Temple site.
(iii) Shãh Mas‘ûd-kî-Masjid (1582-83). Temple site.
(iv) Dargãh and Masjid of Shãh Bahãu’d- Dîn Bãjan. Temple site.
(v) Dargãh of Sûfi Nûr Shãh. Temple site.

I. Ahmadnagar District.

1. Amba Jogi, Fort. Temple materials used.
2. Bhingar, Mulla Masjid (1367-68). Temple site.
3. Gogha
(i) Idgãh (1395). Temple site.
(ii) Morakhwada Masjid (1630). Temple site.
4. Jambukhed, Jãmi‘ Masjid (1687-88). Temple site.
5. Madhi, Dargãh of Ramzãn Shãh Mahî Sawãr. Temple site.

II. Akola District.

1. Akot, Jãmi‘ Masjid (1667). Temple site.
2. Balapur, Masjid (1717-18). Temple site.
3. Basim, Kãkî Shãh-kî-Masjid. Temple site.
4. Jamod
(i) Masjid. Temple site.
(ii) Dargãh of Pîr Paulãd Shãh. Temple site.
5. Karanj
(i) Astãn Masjid (1659). Temple site.
(ii) Masjid (1669-70). Temple site.
(iii) Masjid (1698-99). Temple site.
6. Manglurpir
(i) Qadîmî Masjid. Temple materials used.
(ii) Dargãh of Pîr Hayãt Qalandar (d. 1253). Temple site.
(iii) Dargãh of Sanam Sãhib. Temple site.
7. Narnala
(i) Jãmi‘ Masjid (1509). Temple site.
(ii) Ãlamgîrî Masjid. Temple site.
8. Patur, Dargãh of Abdul Azîz alias Shykh Bãbû Chishtî (d. 1388). Temple site.
9. Uprai, Dargãh of Shãh Dãwal. Temple site.

III. Amravati District.

1. Amner, Masjid and Mazãr of Lãl Khãn (1691-92). Temple site.
2. Ellichpur
(i) Jãmi‘ Masjid reconstructed in 1697. Temple site.
(ii) Dãru‘shifa Masjid. Temple site.
(iii) Chowk-kî-Masjid. Temple site.
(iv) Idgãh. Temple site.
(v) Mazãr of Shãh Ghulãm Husain. Temple site.
(vi) Mazãr of Abdul Rahmãn Ghãzî known as Dûlhã Shãh. Temple site.
3. Ritpur, Aurangzeb’s Jãmi‘ Masjid (reconstructed in 1878). Temple site.

IV. Aurangabad District.

1. Antur Fort, Qalã-kî-Masjid (1615). Temple site.
2. Aurangabad
(i) Jãmi Masjid. Temple site.
(ii) Lãl Masjid. Temple site.
(iii) Maqbara of Aurangzeb. Temple site.
3. Daulatabad
(i) Jãmi‘ Masjid (1315). Converted lain Temple.
(ii) Yak Minãr-kî-Masjid in the Fort. Temple site.
(iii) Masjid-i-Hauz at Kazipura (1458). Temple site.
(iv) Idgãh (1359). Temple site.
(v) Dargãh of Pîr Kãdû Sãhib. Converted temple.
(vi) Fort. Temple materials used.
4. Gangapur, Masjid (1690-91). Temple site.
5. Kaghzipura, Dargãh of Shãh Nizãmu’d-Dîn. Temple site.
6. Khuldabad
(i) Dargãh of Hazrat Burhãnu’d-Dîn Gharîb Chishtî (d. 1339). Temple site.
(ii) Dargãh on Pari-ka-Talao. Converted temple.
(iii) Mazãr of Halîm Kãkã Sãhib. Converted temple.
(iv) Mazãr of Jalãlu’l-Haqq. Temple site.
(v) Bãrãdarî in Bani Begum’s Garden. Temple site.
7. Paithan
(i) Jãmi‘ Masjid (1630). Converted temple.
(ii) Maulãna Sãhib-kî-Masjid. Converted ReNukãdevî Temple.
(iii) Alamagîrî Masjid. Temple materials used.
(iv) Dargãh of Makhdûm Husain Ahmad (1507). Temple site.
8. Taltam Fort, Fort. Temple materials used.
9. Vaijapur
(i) Mazãrs in Nau Ghazi. Temple site.
(ii) Mazãr of Syed Ruknu’d-Dîn. Temple site.

V. Bid District.

(i) Jãmi‘ Masjid. Temple site.
(ii) Qãzî Sãhib-kî-Masjid (1624). Temple site.
(iii) Masjid in Mahalla Sadr (1704-05). Temple site.
(iv) Masjid and Dargãh of Shãhinshãh Walî. Temple site.
(v) Idgãh (1704). Temple site.

VI. Bombay District.

(i) Jãmi‘ Masjid. Temple site.
(ii) Mazãr at Mahim. Temple site.
(iii) Mazãr of Mainã Hajjãm. Converted Mãhãlakshmî Temple.

VII. Buldana District.

1. Fathkhelda, Masjid (1581). Temple site.
2. Malkapur, Masjid near Qazi’s house. Temple site.

VIII. Dhule District.

1. Bhamer
(i) Masjid (1481-82). Temple site.
(ii) Masjid (1529-30). Temple site.
2. Erandol, Jãmi‘ Masjid in Pandav-vada. Temple materials used.
3. Nandurbar
(i) Manyãr Masjid. SiddheŠvaradeva Temple materials used.
(ii) Dargãh of Sayyid Alãu’d-Dîn. Temple site.
(iii) Several Masjids amidst ruins of Hindu temples.
4. Nasirabad, Several old Masjids. Temple sites.
5. Nizamabad, Masjid. Temple site.

IX. Jalgaon District.

1. Jalgaon. Masjid. Temple site.
2. Phaskhanda, Masjid. Temple site.
3. Shendurni, Masjid-i-Kabîr (1597). Temple site.

X. Kolhapur District.

1. Bhadole, Masjid (1551-52). Temple site.
2. Kagal, Dargãh of Ghaibî Pîr. Temple site.
3. Kapshi, Masjid-e-Husainî. Temple site.
4. Panhala
(i) Jãmi‘ Masjid. Temple site.
(ii) Dargãh of Shykh Saidu’d-DIn. Temple site.
(iii) Dargãh of BaDã Imãm in the Fort. Temple site.
(iv) Mazãr of Sãdobã Pîr. Parãšara Temple site.
5. Shirol, Jãmi‘ Masjid (1696). Temple site.
6. Vishalgarh, Mazãr of Malik Rihãn Pîr. Temple site.

XI. Nagpur District.

Ramtek, Masjid built in Aurangzeb’s reign. Converted temple.

XII. Nanded District.

1. Bhaisa
(i) Jãmi‘ Masjid. Temple site.
(ii) Three Dargãhs. Temple sites.
2. Deglur, Mazãr of Shãh Ziãu’d-Dîn Rifai. Temple site.
3. Kandhar
(i) Jãmi‘ Masjid (1606). Temple site.
(ii) Masjid and Dargãh inside the Fort. Temple materials used.
(iii) Causeway of the Fort. Temple materials used.
4. Nanded, Idgãh in Khas Bagh. Temple site.

XIII. Nasik District.

1. Galna
(i) Dargãh of Pîr Pûlãd (1581). Temple site.
(ii) Fort. Temple materials used.
2. Gondengaon, Jãmi‘ Masjid (1703). Temple site.
3. Malegaon, Dargãh of Khãkî Shãh. Temple site.
4. Nasik, Jãmi‘ Masjid in the Fort. Converted Mãhãlakshmî Temple.
5. Pimpri, Mazãr of Sayyid Sadrau’d-Dîn. Temple site.
6. Rajapur, Masjid (1559). Temple site.

XIV. Osmanabad District.

1. Ausa, Masjid (1680). Temple site.
2. Naldurg, Masjid (1560). Temple site.
3. Parenda
(i) Masjid inside the Fort. Built entirely of temple materials.
(ii) Namãzgãh near the Talav. Converted Mãnakešvara Temple.

XV. Parbhani District.

1. Khari, Mazãr of Ramzãn Shãh. Temple site.
2. Latur
(i) Dargãh of Mabsû Sãhib. Converted Minapurî Mãtã Temple.
(ii) Dargãh of Sayyid Qãdirî. Converted Somešvara Temple.
3. Malevir, KhaDu Jãmi‘ Masjid. Converted temple.

XVI. Pune District.

1. Chakan, Masjid (1682). Temple site.
2. Ghoda, Jãmi‘ Masjid. Built in 1586 from materials of 33 temples.
3. Junnar
(i) Jãmi‘ Masjid. Temple Site.
(ii) Diwãn Ahmad-kî-Masjid (1578-79). Temple site.
(iii) GunDi-kî-Masjid (1581). Temple site.
(iv) MadAr Chillã-kî-Masjid. (1611-12). Temple site.
(v) Kamãni Masjid on Shivneri Hill (1625). Temple site.
(vi) Fort. Temple materials used.
4. Khed, Masjid and Mazãr of Dilãwar Khãn. Temple site.
5. Mancher, Masjid at the South-Western Gate. Temple site.
6. Sasvad, Masjid. Built entirely of Hemadapantî temple materials.

XVII. Ratnagiri District.

1. Chaul
(i) Mazãr of Pîr Sayyid Ahmad. Converted Sãmba Temple.
(ii) Maqbara near Hinglaj Spur. Temple site.
(iii) Graveyard. Temple site.
2. Dabhol, Patthar-kî-Masjid. Temple site.
3. Rajpuri, Aidrusia Khãnqãh. Temple site.
4. Yeshir, Jãmi‘ Masjid (1524). Temple site.

XVIII. Sangli District.

1. Mangalvedh, Fort. Temple materials used.
2. Miraj
(i) Masjid (1415-16). Temple site.
(ii) Jãmi‘ Masjid (1506). Temple site.
(iii) Kãlî Masjid. Temple site.
(iv) Namãzgãh (1586-97). Temple site.
(v) Dargãh of BaDã Imãm. Temple site.

XIX. Satara District.

1. Apti, Masjid (1611-12). Temple site.
2. Karad
(i) Jãmi‘ Masjid (1575-76). Temple materials used.
(ii) Qadamagãh of Alî (1325). Temple site.
3. Khanpur, Jãmi‘ Masjid (1325). Temple materials used.
4. Rahimatpur,
(i) Masjid. Temple site.
(ii) Maqbara known as that of Jahãngîr’s Mother (1649). Temple site.

XX. Sholapur District.

1. Begampur, Maqbara near Gadheshvar. Temple site.
2. Sholapur, Fort, Temple materials used.

XXI. Thane District.

1. Kalyan
(i) Dargãh of Hazrat Yãqûb, Temple site.
(ii) Makka Masjid (1586). Temple site.
2. Malanggadh, Mazãr of Bãbã MalaNg. Temple site.

XXII. Wardha District.

1. Ashti
(i) Jãmi‘ Masjid (1521). Temple site.
(ii) Lodî Masjid (1671-72). Temple site.
2. Girad, Mazãr of Shykh Farîd.  Converted temple.
3. Paunar, Qadîmî Masjid. Converted Rãmachandra. Temple.

I. Baleshwar District.

Jãmi‘ Masjid in Mahalla Sunhat (163-74). Šrî ChanDî Temple site.

II. Cuttack District.

1. Alamgir Hill, Takht-i-Sulaimãn Masjid (1719). Temple materials used.
2. Cuttack
(i) Shãhî Masjid. Temple site.
(ii) Masjids in Oriya Bazar. Temple sites.
(iii) Qadam Rasûl Masjid. Temple site.
(iv) Masjid (1668-69). Temple site.
(v) Masjid (1690-91). Temple site.
3. Jajpur
(i) DargAh of Sayyid Bukhãri. Materials of many temples used.
(ii) Jãmi‘ Masjid built by Nawwãb Abu Nãsir. Temple materials used.
4. Kendrapara, Masjid. Temple site.
5. Salepur, Masjid. Temple site.

III. Ganjam District.

Lalapet, Masjid (1690). Temple site.

I. Bhatinda District.

Mazãr of Bãbã Hãjî Rattan (1593). Converted temple.

II. Gurdaspur District.

Batala, Jãmi‘ Masjid. Temple site.

III. Jalandhar District.

Sultanpur, Bãdshãhi Sarai. Built on the site of a Buddhist Vjhãra.

IV. Ludhiana District.

(i) Dargãh and Masjid of Alî Sarmast (1570). Temple site.
(ii) Qãzî-kî-Masjid (1517). Temple site.

V. Patiala District.

1. Bahadurgarh, Masjid in the Fort (1666). Temple site.
2. Bawal, Masjid (1560). Temple site.
3. Samana
(i) Sayyidoñ-kî-Masjid (1495). Temple site.
(ii) Jãmi‘ Masjid (1614-15). Temple site.
(iii) Masjid near Imãmbãra (1637). Temple site.
(iv) Pîrzãda-kî-Masjid (1647). Temple site.

VI. Ropar District.

Jãmi‘ Masjid. Temple site.

VII. Sangrur District.

(i) Qadîmî Masjid (1414). Temple site.
(ii) Ganj-i-Shahîdãn. Temple site.

I. Ajmer District.

It was a Hindu capital converted into a Muslim metropolis. The following monuments stand on the site of and/or are built with materials from temples.
1. ADhãî-Dîn-kA-Jhoñprã (1199).
2. Qalandar Masjid at Taragarh.
3. Ganj-i-Shahîdãn at Taragarh.
4. Dargãh of Muinu’d-Dîn Chistî (d. 1236).
5. Chilia-i-Chishtî near Annasagar Lake.
6. Dargãh and Mazãr of Sayijid Husain at Taragah.
7. Jahãngîrî Mahal at Pushkar.
8. Shãhjahãnî Masjid (1637).
9. Annasagar Bãrãdari.

II. Alwar District.

1. Alwar, Mazãr of Makhdûm Shãh. Temple site.
2. Bahror
(i) Dargãh of Qãdir Khãn. Temple site.
(ii) Masjid near the Dargãh. Temple site.
3. Tijara
(i) Bhartari Mazãr. Converted temple.
(ii) Masjid near the Dargãh. Temple site.

III. Bharatpur District.

1. Barambad, Masjid (1652-53). Temple site.
2. Bari
(i) Graveyard of Arabs and Pathans. Temple site.
(ii) Masjid (1510). Temple site.
3. Bayana
(i) Ûkha or Nohãra Masjid. Converted Ûshã Temple.
(ii) Qazîpãrã Masjid (1305). Temple materials used.
(iii) Faujdãrî Masjid. Temple materials used.
(iv) Syyidpãrã Masjid. Temple materials used.
(v) Muffonkî Masjid. Temple materials used.
(vi) Pillared Cloister at Jhãlar Bãolî. Temple materials used.
(vii) Idgãh near Jhãlar Bãolî. Temple site.
(viii) Taletî Masjid in the Bijayagarh Fort. Converted temple.
(ix) Abu Qandahãr Graveyard. Temple site.
(x) Masjid in Bhitari-Bahari Mahalla. VishNu Temple materials used.
4. Etmada, Pirastãn. Temple site.
5. Kaman
(i) Chaurãsî Khambã Masjid. Converted Kãmyakesvara Temple.
(ii) Fort. Temple materials used.

IV. Chittaurgarh District.

1. Mazãr of Ghãibî Pîr and the surrounding Graveyard. Temple sites.
2. Qanãtî Masjid in the same area. Temple site.

V. Jaipur District.

1. Amber, Jãmi‘ Masjid (1569-70). Temple site.
2. Chatsu
(i) Chhatrî of Gurg Alî Shãh (d. 1571). Temple materials used.
(ii) Nilgaroñ-kî-Masjid (1381). Temple site.
3. Dausa, Jãmi‘ Masjid (1688-89). Temple site.
4. Naraina
(i) Jãmi‘ Masjid (1444). Temple materials used.
(ii) Tripolia Darwaza. Temple materials used.
5. Sambhar
(i) Ganj-i-Shahîdãn. Temple site.
(ii) DargAh of Khwãja Hisãmu’d-Dîn Jigarsukhta. Temple site.
(iii) Masjid in Mahalla Nakhas (1695-96). Temple site.
(iv) Masjid in Rambagh (1696-97). Temple site.
4. Tordi, Khãri Bãolî. Temple materials used.

VI. Jaisalmer District.

1. Jaisalmer, Faqiron-kã-Takiyã. Temple site.
2. Pokaran, Masjid (1704-05). Temple site.

VII. Jalor District.

1. Jalor
(i) Shãhî or Topkhãnã Masjid (1323). Pãršvanãtha Temple materials used.
(ii) Idgãh (1318). Temple site.
(iii) Bãoliwãli Masjid (1523). Temple site.
2. Sanchor, Jãmi‘ Masjid (1506). Temple site.

VIII. Jhalawar District.

Sunel, Masjid (1466-67). Temple site.

IX. Jhunjhunu District.

Narhad, Jãmi‘ Masjid. Temple materials used.

X. Jodhpur District.

1. Jodhpur, Yak-Minãr-kî-Masjid (1649). Temple site.
2. Mandor
(i) Shãhî Masjid. Temple materials used.
(ii) Ghulãm Khãn-kî-Masjid. Temple materials used.
(iii) Dargãh of Tannã Pîr. Temple materials used.
3. Pipar City, Jãmi‘ Masjid (1658). Temple. site.

XI. Kota District.

1. Baran, Masjid (1680). Temple site.
2. Bundi, Mîrãn Masjid on the hill east of the town. Temple site.
3. Gagraun
(i) Jãmi‘ Masjid (1694). Temple site.
(ii) Dargãh of Hazrat Hamîdu’d-Dîn known as Mitthã Shah. Temple site.
4. Shahabad
(i) Sher Shãh Sûrî-kî-Masjid. Temple site.
(ii) Jãmi‘ Masjid. (1671-72). Temple site.
(iii) Dargãh of Rahîm Khãn Dãtã (1534-35). Temple site.
5. Shergarh, Fort of Sher Shãh Sûrî. Brãhmanical, Buddhist and Jain temple materials used.

XII. Nagaur District.

1. Amarpur, Masjid (1655). Temple site.
2. Bakalia, Masjid (1670). Temple site.
3. Balapir, Masjid. Temple site.
4. Badi Khatu
(i) Shãhî Masjid (around 1200). Temple materials used.
(ii) Qanãtî Masjid (1301). Temple site.
(iii) Pahãriyoñ-kî-Masjid and Chheh Shahîd Mazãrs. Temple materials used.
(iv) Jãliyãbãs-kî-Masjid (1320). Temple site.
(v) BaDî and ChhoTî Masjid in Mahalla Sayiddan. Temple site.
(vi) Khãnzãdoñ-kî-Masjid (1482). Temple site.
(vii) Masjid and Dargãh of Muhammad Qattãl Shahîd (1333). Temple materials used.
(viii) Dhobiyoñ-kî-Masjid. Temple site.
(ix) Masjid-i-Sangatrãshãn (1639). Temple site.
(x) Dargãh of Bãbã Ishãq Maghribî (1360). Temple site.
(xi) Dargãh of Samman Shãh. Temple sites.
(xii) Ganj-i-Shahîdãn. Temple site.
(Xiii) Mominoñ-kî-Masjid (1667). Temple site.
(xiv) Fort. Temple materials used.
4. Basni, BaDî Masjid (1696). Temple site.
5. Chhoti Khatu, Dargãh of Shãh Nizãm Bukhãrî (1670). Temple site.
6. Didwana
(i) Qãzioñ-kî-Masjid (1252). Temple site.
(ii) Masjid in Gudri Bazar (1357). Temple site.
(iii) Band (closed) Masjid (1384). Temple site.
(iv) Shaikoñ-kî-Masjid (1377). Temple site.
(v) Jãmi‘ Masjid. Temple site.
(vi) Qãlã-kî-Masjid. Temple site.
(vii) Havãlã Masjid. Temple site.
(viii) Sayyidoñ-kî-Masjid. Temple site.
(ix) Takiyã-kî-Masjid (1582-83). Temple site.
(x) Kachahrî Masjid (1638). Temple site.
(xi) Dhobioñ-kî-Masjid (1662).
(xii) Julãhoñ-kî-Masjid (1664). Temple site.
(xiii) Lohãroñ-kî-Masjid (1665). Temple site.
(xiv) Bisãtiyoñ-kî-Masjid (1675-76). Temple site.
(xv) Mochioñ-kî-Masjid (1686). Temple site
(xvi) Shãh Chãngî Madãrî Masjid (1711). Temple site.
(xvii) Idgãh. Temple site.
(xviii) Graveyard near Delhi Darwaza. Temple site.
(xix) Dîn Darwaza (1681). Temple site.
(xx) Mazãr of Rashîdu’d-Dîn Shahîd. Temple site.
7. Kathoti, Masjid (1569-70). Temple site.
8. Kumhari
(i) Masjid and Dargãh of Bãlã Pîr (1496-97). Temple site.
(ii) Qalandarî Masjid. Temple site.
9. Ladnun
(i) Jãmi‘ Masjid (1371). Temple materials used.
(ii) Hazirawãlî or Khaljî Masjid (1378-79). Temple site.
(iii) Shãhî Masjid. Temple materials used.
(iv) Dargãh of Umrão Shahîd Ghãzî (1371). Temple site.
(v) Graveyard near the above Dargãh. Temple site.
(vi) Mazãr-i-Murãd-i-Shahîd. Temple site.
10. Loharpura
(i) Dargãh of Pîr Zahîru’d-Dîn. Temple site.
(ii) ChhoTî Masjid (1602). Temple site.
11. Makrana
(i) Jãmi‘ Masjid. (Sher Shãh). Temple site.
(ii) Masjid near Pahar Kunwa (1653). Temple site.
(iii) Masjid in Gaur Bas (1678). Temple site.
(iv) Masjid (1643). Temple site.
12. Merta
(i) Masjid in Salawtan (1625-26). Temple site.
(ii) Masjid in Gaditan (1656). Temple site.
(iii) Jãmi‘ Masjid. (1665). Temple site.
(iv) Mochiyoñ-kî-Masjid (1663). Temple site.
(v) Ghosiyoñ-kî-Masjid (1665). Temple site.
(vi) Mominoñ-kî-Masjid (1666). Temple site.
(vii) Masjid in Mahãrãj-kî-Jãgîr (1666). Temple site
(viii) Chowk-kî-Masjid (1670). Temple site.
(ix) Hajjãmoñ-kî-Masjid (1686-87). Temple site.
(x) Miyãñjî-kî-Masjid (1690-91). Temple site.
(xi) Sabungaroñ-kî-Masjid. Temple site.
(xii) Dargãh of Ghaus Pîr. Temple site.
(xiii) Takiyã Kamãl Shãh. Temple site.
13. Nagaur
(i) Mazãr of Pîr Zahîru’d-Dîn. Temple site.
(ii) Dargãh of Bãbã Badr. Temple site.
(iii) Dargãh of Sûfî Hamîdu’d-Dîn Nagauri Chishtî. Temple site.
(iv) Dargãh of Shykh Abdul Qãdîr Jilãnî. Temple site.
(v) Dargãh of Makhdûm Husain Nãgaurî. Temple site.
(vi) Dargãh of Ahmad Alî Bãpjî. Temple site.
(vii) Dargãh of Sayyid Imãm Nûr (1527). Temple site.
(viii) Dargãh of Shãh Abdu’s-Salãm. Temple site.
(xi) Dargãh of Mîrãn Sãhib. Temple site.
(xii) Shams Khãn Masjid near Shamsi Talav. Temple materials used.
(xiii) Jãmî‘ Masjid (1553). Temple site.
(xiv) Ek Mînãr-kî-Masjid (1505-06). Temple site.
(xv) Dhobiyoñ-kî-Masjid (1552). Temple site.
(xvi) Chowk-kî-Masjid (1553). Temple site.
(xvii) Mahawatoñ-kî-Masjid (1567-68). Tempe site.
(xviii) Hamaloñ-kî-Masjid (1599-1600). Temple site.
(xix) Shãh Jahãnî Masjid at Surajpole. Converted temple.
(xx) Masjid outside the Fort (1664). Temple site.
(xxi) Kharãdiyoñ-kî-Masjid(1665). Temple site
(xxii) Ghosiyoñ-kî-Masjid (1677). Temple site.
(xxiii) Masjid near Maya Bazar (1677). Temple site.
(xxiv) Qalandroñ-kî-Masjid. Temple site.
(xxv) Kanehri Julãhoñ-kî-Masjid (1669). Temple site.
(xxvi) Sayyidoñ-kî-Masjid (1433-34). Temple site.
(xxvii) AkhãDewãlî Masjid (1475). Temple site.
14. Parbatsar, Mazãr of Badru’d-Dîn Shãh Madãr. Temple site.
15. Ren, Masjid (1685). Temple site.
16. Rohal, Qãzioyñ-kî-Masjid (1684). Temple site.
17. Sojat, Masjid (1680-81). Temple site.

XIII. Sawai Madhopur District.

1. Garh, Qalã-kî-Masjid (1546-47). Temple site.
2. Hinduan
(i) Rangrezoñ-kî-Masjid (1439). Temple site.
(ii) Masjid in the Takiyã of Khwãja Alî. Temple site.
(iii) Kachahrî Masjid (1659-60). Temple site.
(iv) Bãrã Khambã Masjid (1665). Temple site.
(v) Graveyard east of the Talav. Temple site.
(vi) Masjid and Mazãr of Rasûl Shãh. Temple site.
3. Ranthambor, Qalã-kî-Masjid. Temple materials used.

XIV. Sikar District.

Revasa, Masjid. Temple materials used.

XV. Tonk District.

Nagar, Ishãkhãn Bãolî. Temple materials used.

XVI. Udaipur District.

Mandalgarh, Alãi Masjid. Converted Jain Temple.

I. Chingleput District.

1. Acharwak, Mazãr of Shãh Ahmad. Temple site.
2. Kanchipuram
(i) Large Masjid. Temple site.
(ii) Eight other Masjids. Temple sites.
(iii) Gumbad of Babã Hamîd Walî. Temple site.
3. Karkatpala, Mazãr of Murãd Shãh Mastãn. Temple site.
4. Kovalam, Dargãh of Malik bin Dinãr (1593-94). Temple site.
5. Munropet
(i) Masjid. Temple site.
(ii) Mazãr of Shãh Alî Mastãn. Temple site.
6. Pallavaram
(i) Hill of Panchapandyamalai renamed Maula Pahad and central hall of an ancient Cave Temple turned into a Masjid for worshipping a panjã (palm).
(ii) Mazãr of Shykh Husain Qãdirî alias Bûdû ShahId. Temple site.
(iii) Poonmalle, Mîr Jumla’s Masjid (1653). Temple materials used.
7. Rajkoilpetta, Mazãr of Hãji Umar. Temple site.
8. Rampur, Takiyã of the Tabqãtî order of Faqirs. Temple site.
9. Rayapeta, Walãjãhî Masjid. Temple site.
10. Walajahbad, Masjid. Temple site.

II. Coimbatore District.

1. Annamalai, Fort. Repaired by Tîpû Sultãn with temple materials.
2. Coimbatore, Large Masjid of Tîpû Sultãn. Temple site.
3. Sivasamudram, DargAh of Pîr Walî. Temple site.

III. Madras District.

Jãmi‘ Masjid. Temple site.

IV. Madura District.

1. Bonduvarapetta, Masjid. Temple materials used.
2. Devipatnam, Large Masjid. Temple site.
3. Goripalaiyam, Dargãh of Khwãja Alãu’d-Dîn. Temple site.
4. Madura, Dargãh of Khwãza Alãu’d-Dîn. Temple site.
5. Nimarpalli
(i) Masjid. Temple materials used.
(ii) Dargãh of Makhdûm Jalãlu’d-Dîn. Temple materials used.
6. Puliygulam, Masjid. Temple site.
7. Soravandam, Masjid. Temple site.
8. Tiruparankunram, Sikandar Masjid on top of the Hill. Stands admist ruins of Brahmanical, Buddhist and Jain temples.

V. North Arcot District.

1. Arcot, A city of temples before its occupation by Muslims.
(i) Jãmi‘ Masjid. Temple site.
(ii) Tomb of Sadatu’llah Khãn. Atreya Temple materials used.
(iii) Masjid and Mazãr of Tîpû Awliyã. Temple site.
(iv) Dargãh of Sayyid Husain Shãh. Temple site.
(v) Qalã-kî-Masjid. Temple site.
(vi) Masjid of Shãh Husain Chishtî. Temple site.
(vii) Masjid and Gumbad of Pãpã ShahId. Temple site.
(viii) Gumbad of Shãh Sãdiq with a graveyard. Temple site.
(ix) Masjid and Mazãr of Shãh Azmatu’llãh Qãdirî. Temple site.
(x) Masjid of Shykh Natthar. Temple site.
(xi) Masjid of Murãd Shãh. Temple site.
(xii) Masjid of Mîr Asadu’llãh Khãn. Temple site.
(xiii) Masjid of Maulawî Jamãl Alî. Temple site.
(xiv) Masjid and Gumbad of Sayyid Ahmad alias Yãr Pîr. Temple site.
(xv) Masjid of Chandã Sãhib. Temple site.
(xvi) Masjid of Miskîn Shãh with Gumbad of Amîn Pîr. Temple site.
(xvii) Masjid and Mazãr of Hazrat Usmãn Khãn Sarwar. Temple site.
(xviii) Masjid in the Maqbara of Mughlãnî. Temple site.
(xix) Masjid of GhulAm Rasûl Khãn. Temple site.
(xx) Masjid of Shãh Ghulam Husain Dargãhi. Temple site.
(xxi) Masjid of Hãfiz Abdul Azîz. Temple site.
(xxii) Masjid of Hãfiz Karîmu’llãh. Temple site.
(xxiii) Masjid and Gumbad in Tajpura. Temple site. Outside the city
(xxiv) Takiyã of Qãtil Pãndû Sarguroh. Temple site.
(xxv) Masjid and Gumbad of Ahmad Tãhir Khãn. Temple site.
(xxvi) Masjid, Khãnqãh, Graveyard and Gumbad in Hasanpura. Temple site.
(xxvii) Gumbad of Hazrat Antar Jãmi with the Idgãh. Temple site.
(xxviii) Takiyã, of Sãbit Alî Shãh. Temple site.
(xxix) Masjid and Mazãr of Sayyid KarIm Muhammad. Qãdirî. Temple site.
(xxx) Masjid of Sã‘datmand Khãn. Temple site.
(xxxi) Masjid of Abu’l-Hasan Zãkir. Temple site.
(xxxii) Masjid of Da‘ûd Beg. Temple site.
(xxxiii) Masjid and Gumbad of Hazrat Shãh Nãsir. Temple site.
(xxxiv) Masjid of Punjî. Temple site.
(xxxv) Mazãr of Yadu’llãh Shãh. Temple site.
(xxxvi) Rangîn Masjid. Temple site.
(xxxvii) House of Relic which has a footprint of the Holy Prophet. Converted temple.
2. Arni
(i) Two Masjids. Temple sites.
(ii) Dargãh of Seven Shahîds. Temple site.
3. Kare, Naulakh Gumbad. Converted Gautama and Višvamitra. Temple
4. Kaveripak
(i) Idgãh. Temple site.
(ii) Takiyã. Temple site.
(iii) Three Masjids. Temple sites.
5. Nusratgarh, Many Masjids and Mazãrs in the ruined Fort. Temple sites.
6. Pirmalipak, Mazãr of Wãjid Shãh Champãr Posh. Temple site.
7. Ramna
(i) Masjid of Kamtu Shãh. Temple site.
(ii) Takiyã of Shãh Sãdiq Tabqãti. Temple site.
8. Vellore
(i) Jãmi‘ Masjid. Temple site.
(ii) ChhoTî Masjid. Temple site.
(iii) Mazãr of Nûr Muhammad Qãdirî who “laid waste” many temples. Temple site.
(iv) Mazãr of Shãh Abu’l-Hasan Qãdirî.
(v) Mazãr of Abdul Latîf Zauqî. Temple site.
(vi) Mazãr of Alî Husainî Chishtî. Temple site.
(vii) Mazãr of Hazrat Alî Sultãn. Temple site.
(viii) Mazãr of Amîn Pîr. Temple site.
(ix) Mazãr of Shah Lutfu’llah Qãdirî. Temple site.
(x) Mazãr of Sãhib Pãdshãh Qãdirî. Temple site.
9. Walajahnagar, Masjid and Mazãr of Pîr Sãhib on the Hill. Temple site.
10. Wali-Muhammad-Petta, Masjid. Temple site.

VI. Ramanathapuram District.

1. Eruvadi
(i) Dargãh of Hazrat Ibrãhîm Shahîd. Temple site.
(ii) Mazãr of Hazrat Fakhru’d-Dîn Shahîd alias Kãtbãbã Sãhib. Temple site.
2. Kilakari
(i) Jãmi‘ Masjid. Temple site.
(ii) Dargãh of Muhammad Qãsim Appã. Temple site.
(iii) Apparpallî Masjid. Temple site.
3. Periyapattanam, Dargãh of Sayyid Sultãn Walî. Temple site.
4. Valinokkam
(i) Pallîvãsal Masjid (1417-18). Temple site.
(ii) Dargãh of Katupalli (1425). Temple site.
5. Ramanathapuram, Old Masjid. Temple site.

VII. Salem District.

Sankaridurg, Masjid on the ascent to the Fort. Temple site.

VIII. South Arcot District.

1. Anandapur, Masjid. Temple site.
2. Chidambaram
(i) Lãlkhãn Masjid. Temple materials used.
(ii) Nawal Khãn Masjid. Temple materials used.
(iii) Idgãh. Temple site.
(iv) Mazãr of Amînu’d-Dîn Chishtî. Temple site.
(v) Mazãr of Sayyid Husain. Temple site.
3. Gingee
(i) Masjid (1718). Temple site.
(ii) Masjid (1732). Temple site.
(iii) Masjid in the Fort. Temple site.
4. Kawripet, Mazãr of Qalandar Shãh. Temple site.
5. Manjakupham, Mazãr of Shãh Abdu’r-Rahîm. Temple site.
6. Mansurpeta, Itibãr Khãn-kî-Masjid. Temple site.
7. Nallikuppam
(i) Masjid. Temple site.
(ii) Mazãr of Shykh Mîrãn Sãhib. Temple site.
8. Pannuti
(i) Masjid. Temple site.
(ii) Gumbad of Nûr Muhammad Qãdirî. Temple site.
9. Swamiwaram, Masjid. Temple site.
10. Tarakambari
(i) Masjid. Temple site.
(ii) Mazãr of Shykh Ismãil Sãhib. Temple site.
11. Tirumalarayanapatnam, Mazãr of Abdul Qãdir Yamînî. Temple site.
12. Warachkuri, Mazãr of Shãh Jalãl Husainî. Temple site.

IX. Thanjavur District.

1. Ammapettah
(i) Masjid. Temple site.
(ii) Mazãr of Muînu’d-Dîn Husain Qãdirî. Temple site.
(iii) Mazãr of Shah Jãfar. Temple site.
2. Ilyur
(i) Masjid. Temple site.
(ii) Mazãr of Inãyatu’llãh Dirwesh. Temple site.
(iii) Mazãr of Muhammad Mastãn. Temple site.
(iv) Mazãr of Mîrãn Husain. Temple site.
3. Karambari
(i) Mazãr of Arab Sãhib. Temple site.
(ii) Mazãr of Mubtalã Shãh. Temple site.
4. Kurikyalpalayam
(i) Masjid. Temple site.
(ii) Mazãr of Makhdûm Hãjî. Temple site.
(iii) Mazãr of Makhdûm Jahãn Shãh. Temple site.
5. Kurkuti, Gumbad of Hasan Qãdirî alias Ghyb Sãhib. Temple site.
6. Kushalpalayam
(i) Mazãr of Hazrat Tãj Firãq Badanshãhî. Temple site.
(ii) Mazãr of Hidãyat Shãh Arzãnî. Temple site.
(iii) Mazãr of Yãr Shãh Husainshãhî. Temple site.
7. Nagur
(i) Masjid. Temple site.
(ii) Dargãh of Qãdir Walî Shãh. Temple site.
8. Urancheri, Mazãr of Pîr Qutbu’d-Dîn. Temple site.
9. Vijayapuram, GumbaD of Sultãn Makhdûm. Temple site.
10. Wadayarkari, MazAr of Bãwã SAhib Shãhid. Temple site.

X. Tiruchirapalli District.

1. Puttur, Mazãr. Temple materials used.
2. Tiruchirapalli
(i) Dargãh of NãtThãr Shãh Walî. Converted Šiva Temple. Lingam used as lamp-post.
(ii) Masjid-i-Muhammadî. Temple site.
(iii) Mazãr of Bãbã Muhiu’d-Dîn Sarmast. Temple site.
(iv) Mazãr of Hazrat Fathu’llãh Nûrî. Temple site.
(v) Mazãr of Shams Parãn. Temple site.
(vi) Mazãr of Sayyid Abdul Wahhãb. Temple site.
(vii) Mazãr of Shãh Fazlu’llah Qãdirî. Temple site.
(viii) Mazãr of Shãh Nasîru’d-Dîn. Temple site.
(ix) Mazãr of Farîdu’d-Dîn Shahîd. Temple site.
(x) Mazãr of Hazrat Chãnd Mastãn. Temple site.
(xi) Mazãr of Sayyid Zainu’l-Ãbidîn at Tinur. Temple site.
(xii) Mazãr of Sayyid Karîmu’d-Dîn Qãdirî. Temple site.
(xiii) Mazãr of Alîmu’llãh Shãh Qãdirî called Barhana Shamsîr (Nãked Sword). Temple site.
(xiv) Mazãr of Shãh Imamu’d-Dîn Qãdirî. Temple site.
(xv) Mazãr of Kãkî- Shãh. Temple site.
(xvi) Mazãr of Khwãja Aminu’d-Dîn Chistî. Temple site.
(xvii) Mazãr of Khwãja Ahmad Shãh Husain Chishtî. Temple site.
(xviii) Mazãr of Shãh Bhekã. Converted temple.
(xix) Mazãr of Shãh Jamãlu’d-Dîn Husain Chishtî. Temple site.
(xx) Mazãr of Qãyim Shãh who destroyed twelve temples. Temple site.
(xxi) Mazãr of Munsif Shãh Suhrawardîyya. Temple site.
(xxii) Mazãr of Itiffãq Shãh. Temple site.
(xxiii) Mazãr of Sayyid Jalãl Qãdirî. Temple site.
(xxiv) Mazãr of Mahtab Shah Shirãzî Suhrawardîyya. Temple site.
(xxv) Masjid of Hãjî Ibrãhîm where NãTThãr Shãh Walî (see i above) stayed on his arrival. Temple site.
3. Valikondapuram
(i) Masjid opposite the Fort. Converted temple.
(ii) Mazãr near the Masjid. Converted temple.
(iii) Sher Khãn-kî-Masjid (1690). Temple site.
(iv) Old Jãmi‘ Masjid. Temple site.

XI. Tirunelvelli District.

1. Ambasamudram, Mazãr of Hazrat Rahmtu’llãh near the ruined Fort. Temple site.
2. Kayalpattanam
(i) Periyapallî Masjid (1336-37).
(ii) Sirupallî Masjid. Temple site.
(iii) Dargãh of Nainãr Muhammad. Temple site.
(iv) Marukudiyarapallî Masjid. Temple site.
3. Tirunelvelli, Jãmi‘ Masjid. Temple materials used.

I. Agra District.

1. Agra
(i) Kalãn Masjid in Saban Katra (1521). Temple materials used.
(ii) Humãyûn-kî-Masjid at Kachhpura (1537-38). Temple site.
(iii) Jãmi‘ Masjid of Jahãnãrã (1644). Temple site.
(iv) Dargãh of Kamãl Khãn Shahîd in Dehra Bagh. Temple material uses.
(v) Riverside part of the Fort of Akbar. Jain Temple sites.
(vi) Chînî kã Rauzã. Temple site.
2. Bisauli, Masjid (1667-68).  Temple site.
3. Fatehpur Sikri
(i) Anbiyã Wãlî Masjid and several others in Nagar.  Converted temples.
(ii) Jãmi‘ Masjid. Temple materials used.
(iii) Dargãh of Shykh Salîm Chishtî. Temple site.
(iv) Fatehpur Sikri Complex. Several temple sites.

4. Firozabad, Qadîm Masjid. Temple site.
5. Jajau, Masjid. Temple site.
6. Rasulpur, Mazãr of Makhdûm Shah. Temple site.
7. Sikandra

(i) Maqbara of Akbar. Temple site.
(ii) Masjid in the Mission Compound. Temple site.

II. Aligarh District

1. Aligarh
(i) Idgãh (1562-63). Temple site.
(ii) Dargãh of Shykh Jalãlu’d-Dîn Chishtî Shamsul-Arifîn. Temple site.
(iii) Graveyard with several Mazãrs. Temple site.
(iv) Shershãhî Masjid (1542). Temple site.
(v) Masjid (1676). Temple site.
2. Pilkhana, Bãbarî or Jãmi‘ Masjid (1528-29). Temple: materials used.
3. Sikandara Rao, Jãmi‘ Masjid (1585). Temple site.

III. Allahabad District.

1. Allahabad
(i) Fort of Akbar. Temple sites.
(ii) Khusru Bagh. Temple sites.
(iii) Dargãh of Shãh Ajmal Khãn with a Graveyard. Temple site.
(iv) Masjid (1641-22). Temple site.
(v) Gulabbari Graveyard.  Temple site.
2. Koh Inam, Jãmi‘ Masjid (1384). Temple site.
3. Mauima, Qadîm Masjid. Temple site.
4. Shahbazpur, Masjid (1644-45). Temple site.

IV. Azamgarh District.

1. Dohrighat, Kalãn Masjid. Temple site.
2. Ganjahar, Masjid (1687-88). Temple site.
3. Mehnagar, Tomb of Daulat or Abhimãn. Temple site.
4. Nizambad
(i) Jãmi‘ Masjid. Temple site.
(ii) Mazãr of Miãn Maqbûl and Husain Khãn Shahîd (1562).  Temple sites.
5. Qasba, Humãyûn’s Jãmi‘ Masjid (1533-34). Temple site.

V. Badaun District.

1. Alapur, Ãlamgîrî Masjid. Temple materials used.
2. Badaun
(i) Shamsî or Jãmi‘ Masjid (1233). Temple materials used.
(ii) Shamsî Idgãh (1209). Temple materials used.
(iii) Hauz-i-Shamsî (1203). Temple materials used.
(iv) Dargãh of Shãh Wilãyat (1390). Temple site.
(v) Several other Masjids and Mazãrs. Temple sites.
3. Sahiswan, Jãmi‘ Masjid (1300). Temple site.
4. Ujhani, Abdullãh Khãn-kî-Masjid. Temple site.

VI. Bahraich District.

DargAh of Sãlãr Mas‘ûd Ghãzî. Sûryadeva Temple site.

VII. Ballia District. 

(i) Jãmi‘ Masjid. Temple site.
(ii) Dargãh of Ruknu’d-Dîn Shãh. Temple site.

VIII. Banda District.

1. Augasi, Masjid (1581-82). Temple site.
2. Badausa, Masjid (1692). Temple site.
3. Kalinjar
(i) Masjid in Patthar Mahalla (1412-13). Converted Lakshmî-NãrãyaNa Temple.
(ii) Masjid (1660-61). Temple site.
(iii) Several other Masjids and Mazãrs. Temple sites.
4. Soron, Dargãh of Shykh Jamãl. Temple site.

IX. Bara Banki District.

1. Bhado Sarai, Mazãr of Malãmat Shãh. Temple site.
2. Dewa
(i) Dargãh of Hãjî Wãris Alî Shãh. Temple site.
(ii) Masjid (1665). Temple site.
3. Fatehpur
(i) Masjid. Temple site.
(ii) Imambãrã. Temple site.
4. Radauli
(i) Masjid. Temple site.
(ii) Dargãh of Shãh Ahmad and Zuhrã Bîbî. Temple site.
5. Rauza Gaon, Rauza of Da‘ûd Shãh. Temple site.
6. Sarai-Akbarabad, Masjid (1579-80). Temple site.
7. Satrikh, Dargãh of Sãlãr Sãhû Ghãzî. Temple site.

X. Bareilly District.

1. Aonla
(i) Begum-kî-Masjid. Temple site.
(ii) Maqbara of Alî Muhammad Rohilla. Temple site.
2. Bareilly, Mirzai Masjid (1579-80). Temple site.
3. Faridpur, Fort built by Shykh Farîd. Temple materials used.

XI. Bijnor District.

1. Barmih-ka-Khera, Masjid. Temple materials used.
2. Jahanabad, Maqbara of Nawãb Shuja‘at Khãn. Temple site.
3. Kiratpur, Fort with a Masjid inside. Temple materials used.
4. Mandawar, Jãmi‘ Masjid. Temple materials used.
5. Najibabad, Patthargarh Fort. Temple materials used.
6. Nihtaur, Masjid. Temple site.
7. Seohara, Masjid. Temple site.

XII. Bulandshahar District.

1. Aurangabad Sayyid, All Masjids stand on temple sites.
2. Bulandshahar
(i) Dargãh. Temple site.
(ii) Fort. Materials of many temples used.
(iii) Idgãh. Temple site.
(iv) Masjid (1311). Temple site.
(v) Masjid (1538). Temple site.
(vi) Masjid (1557). Temple site.
3. Khurja, Mazãr of Makhdûm Sãhib. Temple site.
4. Shikarpur, Several Masjids built in Sikandar Lodî’s reign. Temple sites.
5. Sikandarabad, Several Masjids built in Sikandar Lodî’ a reign.  Temple sites.

XIII. Etah District.

1. Atranjikhera, Mazãr of Hazrat Husain (or Hasan). Temple site.
2. Jalesar
(i) Mazãr of Mîrãn Sayyid Ibrãhîm (1555). Temple site.
(ii) Fort. Temple materials used.
3. Kasganj, Jãmi‘ Masjid (1737-38). Temple site.
4. Marahra, Masjid and Mazãr. Temple site.
5. Sakit
(i) Qadîm Masjid (1285). Temple materials used.
(ii) Akbarî Masjid (1563). Temple site.

XIV. Etawah District.

1. Auraiya, Two Masjids. Temple sites.
2. Etawah, Jãmi‘ Masjid. Converted temple.
3. Phaphund, Masjid and Mazãr of Shãh Bukhãrî (d. 1549). Temple site.

XV. Farrukhabad District.

1. Farrukhabad, Several Masjids. Temple materials used.
2. Kannauj
(i) Dînã or Jãmi‘ Masjid (1406). Sîtã-kî-Rasoî. Temple materials used.
(ii) Dargãh of Makhdûm Jahãniãn. Temple materials used.
(iii) Dargãh of Bãbã Hãji Pîr. Temple site.
(iv) Masjid (1663-64). Temple site.
(v) Dargãh of Bãlã Pîr. Temple site.
3. Rajgirhar, Mazãr of Shykh Akhî Jamshed. Temple site.
4. Shamsabad, All Masjids and Mazãrs. Temple sites.

XVI. Fatehpur District.

1. Haswa, Idgãh (1650-51). Temple site.
2. Hathgaon
(i) Jayachandi Masjid. Temple materials used.
(ii) Dargãh of Burhãn Shahîd. Temple site.
3. Kora (Jahanabad)
(i) Daraãh of Khwãja Karrak. Temple site.
(ii) Jãmi‘ Masjid (1688-89). Temple site.
4. Kot, Lãdin-ki-Masjid (built in 1198-99, reconstructed in 1296). Temple site.

XVII. Fyzabad District.

1. Akbarpur
(i) Qalã-kî-Masjid. Temple site.
(ii) Masjid (1660-61). Temple site.
2. Ayodhya
(i) Bãbarî Masjid. RAma-Janmabhûmi Temple site.
(ii) Masjid built by Aurangzeb. Swargadvãra Temple site.
(iii) Masjid built by Aurangzeb. Tretã-kã-Thãkur Temple site.
(iv) Mazãr of Shãh Jurãn Ghurî. Temple site.
(v) Mazãrs of Sîr Paighambar and Ayûb Paighambar near Maniparvat. On the site of a Buddhist Temple which contained footmarks of the Buddha.
3. Fyzabad, Imãmbãrã. Temple site.
4. Hatila, Mazãr of a Ghãzî. Ašokanãtha Mahãdeva. Temple site.
5. Kichauchha, Dargãh of Makhdûm Ashraf in nearby Rasulpur. Temple site.

XVIII. Ghazipur District.

1. Bhitri
(i) Masjid and Mazãr. Temple materials used.
(ii) Idgãh. Temple site.
(iii) Bridge below the Idgãh. Buddhist Temple materials used.
2. Ghazipur
(i) Mazãr and Masjid. Temple site.
(ii) Chahal Sitûn Palace. Temple site.
3. Hingtar
(i) Qala-kî-Masjid. Temple materials used.
(ii) Fort. Temple materials used.
4. Khagrol, Bãrã Khambã or Dargãh of Shykh Ambar. Temple site.
5. Saidpur, Two Dargãhs. Converted Buddhist Temples.

XIX. Gonda District.

Sahet-Mahet (Šrãvastî)
(i) Maqbara. On the plinth of Sobhnãth Jain Temple.
(ii) Mazãr of Mîrãn Sayyid.  On the ruins a Buddhist Vihãra.
(iii) Imlî Darwãzã. Temple materials used.
(iv) Karbalã Darwãzã. Temple materials used.

XX. Gorakhpur District.

1. Gorakhpur, Imãmbãrã. Temple site.
2. Lar, Several Masjids. Temple sites.
3. Pava, Karbalã. On the ruins of a Buddhist Stûpa.

XXI. Hamirpur District

1. Mahoba
(i) Masjid outside Bhainsa Darwaza of the Fort (1322). Converted temple.
(ii) Masjid built on a part of the Palace of Parmardideva on the Hill. Temple materials used.
(iii) Two Maqbaras. Temple materials used.
(iv) Dargãh of Pîr Muhammad Shãh. Converted Siva temple.
(v) Dargãh of MubArak Shãh and Graveyard nearby. Contain no less than 310 pillar from demolished temples.
2. Rath, Two Maqbaras. Temple materials used.

XXII. Hardoi District.

1. Bilgram
(i) Sayyidoñ-kî-Masjid. Temple materials used.
(ii) Jãmi‘ Masjid (1438). Temple materials used.
(iii) Several other Masjids and Dargãhs. Temple materials used.
2. Gopamau, Several Masjids. Temple sites.
3. Pihani
(i) Abdul Gafûr-kî-Masjid. Temple site.
(ii) Dargãh of Sadr-i-Jahãn (1647-48). Temple site.
4. Sandila
(i) Qadîm Masjid. Temple site.
(ii) Mazãr in Bãrah Khambã. Temple site.

XXIII. Jalaun District.

1. Kalpi
(i) Chaurãsî Gumbad complex of tombs. Many temple sites.
(ii) Dargãh of Shãh Abdul Fath Alãi Quraishi (1449). Temple site.
(iii) Dargãh of Shãh Bãbû Hãjî Samad (1529). Temple site.
(iv) DeoDhi or Jãmi‘ Masjid (1554). Temple site.
2. Katra, Masjid (1649). Temple site.

XXIV. Jaunpur District.

1. Jaunpur
(i) Atãlã Masjid (1408). Atala DevI Temple materials used.
(ii) Daribã Masjid. Vijayachandra’s Temple materials used.
(iii) Jhãñjarî Masjid.  Jayachandra’s Temple materials used.
(iv) Lãl Darwãzã Masjid. Temple materials from the Višvešvara Temple at Varanasi used.
(v) HammAm Darwãzã Masjid (1567-68). Temple materials used.
(vi) Ibrãhîm Bãrbak-kî-Masjid inside the Fort (1360). Temple materials used.
(vii) Jãmi‘ Masjid. Pãtãla Devî Temple site.
(viii) Fort. Temple materials used.
(ix) Akbarî Bridge on the Gomatî. Temple materials used.
(x) Khãlis Mukhlis or Chãr Angulî Masjid. Temple site.
(xi) Khãn Jahãn-kî-Masjid (1364). Temple site.
(xii) Rauzã of Shãh Fîruz. Temple site.
2. Machhlishahar
(i) Jãmi‘ Masjid. Temple site.
(ii) Karbalã. Temple site.
(iii) Sixteen other Masjids. Temple sites.
3. Shahganj, Dargãh of Shãh Hazrat Alî. Temple site.
4. Zafarabad
(i) Masjid and Dargãh of Makhdûm Shah (1311 or 1321). Temple materials used.
(ii) Ibrãhîm Barbak-kî-Masjid. Converted temple.
(iii) Zafar Khãn-kî-Masjid (1397). Converted temple.
(iv) Ganj-i-Shahîdãn. Temple materials used.
(v) Fort. Temple materials used.
(vi) Early Sharqî buildings including many Maqbaras. Temple materials used.
(vii) Dargãh of Asaru’d-Dîn. Temple materials used.

XXV. Jhansi District.

1. Irich, Jãmi‘ Masjid (1412). Temple materials used.
2. Lalitpur, Bãsã Masjid (1358). Materials of four temples used.
3. Talbhat
(i) Masjid (1405). Temple site.
(ii) Dargãh of Pîr Tãj Bãj. Temple site.

XXVI. Kanpur District.

1. Jajmau
(i) Dargãh of Alãu’d-Dîn Makhdûm Shãh (1360). Temple site.
(ii) Idgãh (1307). Temple site.
(iii) Qalã-kî-Masjid. Temple site.
(iv) Jãmi‘ Masjid (renovated in 1682). Temple site.
2. Makanpur, Mazãr of Shãh Madãr. Converted temple.

XXVII. Lucknow District.

1. Kakori, Jhãñjharî Rauza of Makhdûm Nizãmu’d-Dîn. Temple materials used.
2. Lucknow
(i) Tîlewãlî. Masjid Temple site.
(ii) Ãsafu’d-Daula Imambara. Temple site.
(iii) Dargãh of Shãh Muhammad Pîr on Lakshmana Tila renamed Pir Muhammad Hill. Temple site.
(iv) Mazãr of Shykh Ibrãhîm Chishtî Rahmatullãh. Temple materials used.
(v) Nadan Mahal or Maqbara of Shykh Abdu’r-Rahîm. Temple site.
(vi) Machchi Bhavan. Temple sites.
3. Musanagar, Masjid (1662-63). Temple site.
4. Nimsar, Fort. Temple materials used.
5. Rasulpur, Masjid (1690-91). Temple site.

XXVIII. Mainpuri District. 

(i) Jãmi‘ Masjid. Temple site.
(ii) Idgãh (1312). Temple site.
(iii) Dargãh of Pîr Faddû. Temple site.

XXIX. Mathura District.

1. Mahaban, Assî Khambã Masjid. Converted temple.
2. Mathura
(i) Idgãh on the Katrã Mound. Kešvadeva. Temple site.
(ii) Jãmi‘ Masjid built by Abdu’n-nabi (1662). Temple materials used.
(iii) Mazãr of Shykh Farîd. Temple materials used.
(iv) Mazãr of Makhdûm Shãh Wilãyat at Sami Ghat. Temple materials used.
3. Naujhil, Dargãh of Makhdûm Shykh Saheti Sãhib. Temple materials used.

XXX. Mecrut District.

1. Barnawa, Humãyun’s Masjid (1538-39). Temple site.
2. Garhmuktesar, Masjid (1283). Temple site.
3. Hapur, Jãmi‘ Masjid (1670-71). Temple site.
4. Jalali, Jãmi‘ Masjid (1266-67). Temple materials used.
5. Meerut
(i) Jãmi‘ Masjid. Stands on the ruins of a Buddhist Vihãra.
(ii) Dargãh at Nauchandi.  Nauchandî Devî Temple site.
6. Phalauda, Dargãh of Qutb Shãh. Temple site.

XXXI. Mirzapur District.

1. Bhuli, Masjid in Dakhni Tola. Temple site.
2. Chunar
(i) Mazãr of Shãh Qãsim Sulaimãn. Temple site.
(ii) Fort. Temple materials used.
3. Mirzapur, Several Masjids. Temple sites.

XXXII. Moradabad District.

1. Amroha
(i) Jãmi‘ Masjid. Converted temple.
(ii) Dargãh and Masjid of Shykh Saddû. Temple site.
(iii) Dargãh of Shykh Wilãyat. Temple site.
(iv) Masjid (1557-58). Temple site.
(v) Many other Masjids. Temple sites.
2. Azampur, Masjid (1555-56). Temple site.
3. Bachhraon, Several Masjids. Temple sites.
4. Moradabad, Jãmi‘ Masjid (1630). Temple site.
5. Mughalpura-Agwanpur, Masjid (1695-96). Temple site.
6. Sirsi, Qadîmî Masjid. Temple site.
7. Ujhari, Mazãr of Shykh Da‘ûd. Temple site.
8. Sambhal
(i) Jãmi‘ Masjid. Converted VishNu Temple.
(ii) Masjid in Sarai Tarim (1503). Temple site.
(iii) Mazãr of Miãn Hãtim Sambhali. Temple site.
(iv) Mazãr of Shykh Panjû. Temple site.

XXXIII. Muzaffarnagar District.

1. Daira Din Panah, Mazãr of Sayyid Dîn Panãh. Temple site.
2. Ghausgah, Fort and Masjid. Temple materials used.
3. Jhinjhana
(i) Dargãh (1495). Temple site.
(ii) Masjid and Mazãr of Shãh Abdul Razzãq (1623). Temple site.
4. Kairana
(i) Dargãh. Temple site.
(ii) Masjid (1551). Temple site.
(iii) Masjid (1553-54). Temple site.
(iv) Masjid (1617-18). Temple site.
(v) Masjid (1630-31). Temple site.
(vi) Masjid (1651-52). Temple site.
5. Majhera, Masjid and Mazãr of Umar Nûr. Temple site.
6. Sambhalhera, Two Masjids (1631-32). Temple site.
7. Thana Bhawan, Masjid (1702-03). Temple site.

XXXIV. Pilibhit District.

Jãmi‘ Masjid. Temple site.

XXXV. Pratapgarh District.

Manikpur, Many Masjids and Mazãrs. On the ruins of demolished temples.

XXXVI. Rampur District.

Jãmi‘ Masjid. Temple site.

XXXVII. Rae Bareli District.

1. Datmau
(i) Idgãh (1357-58). Temple site.
(ii) Fort. On the ruins of Buddhist Stûpas.
(iii) Masjid (1616). Temple site.
2. Jais
(i) Jãmi‘ Masjid. Temple materials used.
(ii) Masjid (1674-75). Temple site.
3. Rae Bareli
(i) Jãmi‘ Masjid. Temple site.
(ii) Jahãn Khãn Masjid. Temple site.
(iii) Dargãh of Makhdûm Sayyid Jãfari. Temple site.
(iv) Fort. Temple materials used.

XXXVIII. Saharanpur District. 

1. Ambahata
(i) Masjid (1533-34). Temple site.
(ii) Masjid (1534-35). Temple site.
2. Deoband
(i) Masjid (1510). Temple site.
(ii) Masjid (1557). Temple site.
(iii) Jãmi‘ Masjid (1677-78). Temple site.
3. Gangoh
(i) Mazãr of Shykh Abdul Quddûs. Temple site.
(ii) Three Masjids. Temple sites.
4. Jaurasi, Masjid (1675-76). Temple site.
5. Kaliyar, Dargãh of Shykh Alãu’d-Dîn Alî bin Ahmad Sãbrî, a disciple of Bãbã Farîd Shakar Ganj of Pak Pattan. Temple site.
6. Manglaur
(i) Masjid (1285). Temple site.
(ii) Dargãh of Shãh Wilãyat. Temple site.
7. Rampur, Mazãr of Shykh Ibrãhîm. Temple site.
8. Saharanpur, Jãmi‘ Masjid. Temple site.
9. Sakrauda, Dargãh of Shãh Ruknu’d-Dîn or Shãh Nachchan. Temple site.
10. Sirsawa, Mazãr of Pîr Kilkilî Shãh. On top of temples destroyed.

XXXIX. Shahjahanpur District.

1. Kursi, Masjid (1652). Temple site.
2. Shahjahanpur, Bahadur Khãn-kî-Masjid (1647). Temple site.

XL. Sitapur District.

1. Biswan, Masjid (1637-38). Temple site.
2. Khairabad, Several Masjids. Temple sites.
3. Laharpur, Mazãr of Shykh Abdu’r-Rahmãn. Temple site.

XLI. Sultanpur District.

1. Amethi, Mazãr of Shykh Abdul Hasan. Temple site.
2. Isuli
(i) Jãmi‘ Masjid (1646-47). Temple site.
(ii) Mazãr of Sayyid Ashraf Jahãngîr Simnãnî. Temple site.

XLII. Unao District.

1. Bangarmau
(i) BaDi Dargãh of Alãu’d-Dîn Ghanaun (1320). Temple materials used.
(ii) Dargãh of Jalãlu’d-DIn (d. 1302). Temple site.
(iii) ChhoTî Dargãh (1374). Temple site.
(iv) Jãmi‘ Masjid (1384). Temple site.
2. Rasulabad, Alamgîrî Masjid. Temple site.
3. Safipur
(i) Dargãh of Shãh Shafî. Temple materials used.
(ii) Dargãh of Qudratu’llãh. Temple materials used.
(iii) Dargãh of Fahîmu’llãh. Temple materials used.
(iv) Dargãh of Hãfizu’llãh. Temple materials used.
(v) Dargãh of Abdu’llãh. Temple materials used.
(vi) Fourteen Masjids. Temple sites.

XLIII. Varanasi District.

1. Asla, Shãh Jahãnî Masjid. Temple site.
2. Varanasi
(i) Masjid at Gyanavapi. Višvešvara Temple material used.
(ii) Masjid at Panchaganga Ghat. KirîTavišvešvara Temple materials used.
(iii) Masjid and Dargãh of Sayyid Fakhru’d-Dîn Sãhib Alvî (1375) Temple site.
(iv) Bindu Madhava Masjid (1669). Converted Biñdu-Mãdhava Temple.
(v) Masjid and Mazãr at Bakariya Kund. Temple materials used.
(vi) ADhãi Kãñgrã-kî-Masjid in Adampura. Temple site.
(vii) Darharã Masjid. Temple site.
(viii) Mazãr of Lãl Khãn at Rajghat. Temple site.


1 The word “Hindu” in the present context stands for all schools of Sanatana Dharma-Buddhism, Jainism, Saivism, Shaktism, Vaishnavism and the rest.

2 History of Aurangzeb, Calcutta, 1925-52.

3 Religious Policy of the Mughal Emperors, Bombay, 1962.

4 Advice tendered to this author by Dilip Padgaonkar, editor of The Times of India, in the context of quoting correct history. Small wonder that he has converted this prestigious daily into a platform for communist politicians masquerading as historians. “Perhaps you want,” wrote a reader, “to invest them with some kind of academic glory by using the legend of JNU, but their best introduction, intellectually speaking, is that they are Stalinist historians… Their ideological brothers in the press make sure, through selective reporting and publishing, that their views are properly advertised. The Times of India, too, is in this rank; its editorials, leading articles, special reports-all breathe venom, not just against Ram Janmabhumi but any Hindu viewpoint. Anything in sympathy with this viewpoint is conscientiously kept out” (The Times of India, November 11, 1989, Letters).

5 Archaeological Survey of India, Annual Report 1925-26.  Pp. 129-30. 

6 Ibid., p. 129.

7 Ibid., p. l28.

8 Ibid., 1907-08, p. 113.

9 Ibid., Pp. 114.

10 Ibid., p. 114-15.  Technical details have been omitted and emphasis added.

11 Ibid., p. 116.

12 Ibid., p. 120.

13 Ibid., p. 126.

14 Ibid., p. 61.

15 Ibid., 1907-08, Pp. 47, to 72.

16 Ibid., 1903-04, p. 86.

17 Ibid., 1902-3, p. 52.

18 Ibid., 1921-22, p. 83.

19 Ibid., p. 84.

20 Ibid., 1902-03, p. 56.

21 Ibid., 1933-34, Pp. 36-37.

22 Ibid., 1902-03, Pp. 16-17.

23 Ibid., 1993-4, Pp. 31-32.

24 Ibid., 1902-03, Pp. 17-18.

25 Ibid., 1903-04, p. 43.

26 Ibid., p. 63.

27 Ibid., 1904-05, p. 24.

28 Ibid., 1929-30, p. 29.

29 Ibid., 1928-29, Pp. 167-68.

30 Robert Sewell, A Forgotten Empire, New Delhi Reprint, 1962, Pp. 199-200.

31 Archaeological Survey of India, Volume I : Four Reports Made During the Years 1862-63-64-65, Varanasi Reprint, 1972, Pp. 440-41.

32 Ratan Pribhdas Hingorani, Sites Index to A.S.I. Circle Reports New Delhi 1978, Pp. 17-262.

33 A decision to this effect was taken by the Archaeological Survey of India soon after independence, ostensibly under guidelines laid down by an international conference.

34 S.A.A. Rizvi, History of Sufism in India, Volume 1, New Delhi, 1978, P. 189.

35 Ghulãm Abdul Qãdir Nazîr, Bahr-i-‘Azam or Travels of ‘Azam Shãh Nawwãb Walãjãh, 1823, Madras, 1960, p. 128.

36 Ibid., p. 64.

37 Ibid., p. 128.

38 Dates given in brackets refer to the Christian era.

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